Pigments Properties, Making Paints, Medium Recipes, Pro Artist Paint Color Charts and Free Art Books
The Art Is Creation, Color of Art Sitemap
Pigments, colors and mediums are the tools of the painter. Ever since human beings stood upright, freeing their hands, they have been using natural pigments, earth colors and synthetic pigments to record their experiences. If a language is meant to communicate ideas and record events, then art was truly the first language.
Click above to go to the pigment code reference charts. These are, to my knowledge, the most complete color index pigment code reference of it's type available on the internet for free. The pigment information is sorted by color index name making it easy the look up the pigment codes that are listed on artist paint tubes. The Colour Index Generic Names and Colour Index Constitution Numbers are voluntary international standards of the ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials), CII (Color Index International), AATCC (American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists), and the SDC (Society of Dyers and Colourists). The Color Index Codes and generic pigment names were developed so that artists and colorists had a consistent international standard.
This pigment reference database consists of the color index pigment code name, generic pigment name, common paints/pigments names, color index chemical constitution number, chemical composition or formula, transparency/opaqueness, light fastness, oil absorption, toxically/safety, and other artists' paint information.
Go here for color index pigment code information and color charts of most of the popular brands of artist paints. This will help when making purchasing choices, getting clean paint mixes, and identifying chemical toxins. Once you find the Color Index Name, Code or Number of any paint your interested in, you can look it up the pigment info and chemical composition in the pigment code reference charts.
Be aware that sometimes the paint formulas are changed due to pigment availability, pigment cost or to substitute a more modern light fast pigment. The artist paint manufactures are slow to update their online color charts, so when ever possible it is best to purchase paints where you can actually check the paint tubes label. If the paint has to be bought mail order or online it may be wise to confirm the actual pigments used in the paint before purchase.
Making your own paint is the only way to really know what's it them. You can customize the paints to be perfect for your painting style or needs. Paints can be made that don't exist anywhere on the market using rare pigments, mineral pigments, and unusual pigments that are not profitable enough for the major art supply manufactures. I have made paints in rare pigment colors and earth colors that I have collected myself. I have mulled artist grade water mixable oils, historical, unique and experimental paints. It is not necessarily cheaper and certainly not easier, but making your own paint can be very gratifying. For those who are interested, I have added some recipes or formulas on chemical synthesizing and making pigments too.
Painting mediums have been used for centuries to change the body and working characteristics of paints. The elusive magical medium of the old masters is the holy grail for thousands of artists. There is no magical medium or mixture, but paint mediums can impart wonderful handling properties. There are many other formulas and artist recipes that are useful in the studio as well. Here you'll find artist formulas, recipes, links and my own experiments.
Site news, pigment info, art, and other random stuff.
The free art books page is a totally free public domain artist reference book resource. I've put them on one page to save you the time of searching and hunting the all over the internet for them. These books contain historical techniques, formulas, recipes and other useful art resource books including references on Oil Painting, Watercolor, Composition, Paint making, Pigment making, Historical Pigments, Art History and Art materials both old & new. There is an incredible wealth of information and history to be found in these great books... and they're all completely FREE!
Recommended Art Reference Books. These are selected art books with all the information you'll ever need. If your thinking about getting a specific art book anyway, you can help support my efforts to keep this information available by purchasing through this site, and these are the best prices your likely to find anywhere. All proceeds go to help me keep this site running. Thanks!
|PAINT AND PIGMENT REFERANCE TABLE KEY: Page Top^
|Jump to : Supplier\Manufacturer Codes | Binder/Medium Codes
Color Index Generic Name: Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is the C.I. Generic Name (abbreviated) given by the ASTM and Colour Index International (CII) for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.
|Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments
Naturally occurring pigments. They are all organic and are biological in origin. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments (i.e. Madder Lake). A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth (Van Dyke Brown). They are designated with C.I. Generic name or CIGN of which consists of the usage class "Natural" and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Natural Brown 8). Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. NBr 8)
Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. The can be synthetic or naturally occurring, but they do not come from biological sources, they may be based on natural sources (i.e. PR 83 or the synthetic form of Alizarin Crimson). Pigments are designated with C.I. Generic name or CIGN which consists of the usage class "Pigment" and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Pigment Red 106, Cadmium Red). The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. PR83 for Pigment Red 83)
|NY = Natural Yellow;
NO = Natural Orange;
NR = Natural Red;
NV = Natural Violet;
NB = Natural Blue;
NG = Natural Green;
NBr = Natural Brown;
NBk = Natural Black;
NW = Natural White;
||PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal
The CI (Color Index) Common Pigment Name: Key Top ^ Page Top^
In this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997) by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials.
When the Colour Index (3rd edition) has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research.
Common, Historic and Marketing Names: Key Top ^ Page Top^
These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books & references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected (in order of importance) from
1.) Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers and\or other pigment supplier literature;
2.) Various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufactures and pigment manufacturers;.
3.) The Color Index, Third edition (published by the Colour Index International, 1997);
4.) Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms (see Free Art e-Books);
5.) Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works);
6.) Various dictionaries and encyclopedias (both historic and contemporary).
When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the "(hue)"* in parenthesis. For example calling\naming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as "Azure", "Smalt" or "Cobalt Blue".
*In order to stay within ASTM specification D 4302-05, manufactures are encouraged to use the word "hue" when the paint or pigment marketing name is not the real name of a paint or a pigment. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage (often perpetrated by manufacturer's incorrect color marketing names), and last but not least - the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paint\pigment, it's nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive.
C.I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number (chemical composition): Key Top ^ Page Top^
These are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the "Colour Index Constitution Number" has a specific chemical or compositional meaning; for more information
see the Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites (these links open in a new window)..
Chemical Composition: Key Top ^ Page Top^
These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.
Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, and\or drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i.e. the Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens. These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label.
Color Description: Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this (such as the Munsell system), but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1997), I have used that description, when there is no color hue description in the Color Index, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.
† = Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage.
These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.
Fades = Becomes more Transparent
Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains
relative transparency or opaque character;
Whitens = Becomes lighter towards white and more opaque;
Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;
Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral but maintains the relative tone;
Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;
Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color
Opacity - Transparency*: Key Top ^ Page Top^
This designation is only a general reference to the most common encountered opacity or transparency inherit to the pigment. In paints, the transparency of a pigment can change due to what is used as the painting medium or binder (i.e., oil color, watercolor, encaustic, acrylic, etc.). There are many pigments that are opaque in watercolor but transparent or semi-transparent in oil paints. The transparency of a paint or pigment can often be manipulated by the manufacturing process for a particular purpose. The addition of inert pigments or other modifiers can also change the perceived transparency of a paint formulation or pigment.
When available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. When the Color Index description is unavailable i have arrived at a general figure by manufacturer literature or personal experience. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.
1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent
Light Fastness Rating**: Key Top ^ Page Top^
The light fastness rating can only be a general guide, when available, i have used the ASTM rating or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and I believe will no longer be rating pigments. For that reason the rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lightfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. Very often, pigments in tints are less light fast and this should be taken into account when determining if a pigment or paint will meet your needs. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space. There are so many variables as to make this designation, in this database, of only marginal use. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following: (ASTM D4303 - 10,
Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials, or ASTM D01.57, the Subcommittee on Artists' Materials doc here, opens new window); or this (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window)
I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor (may last many years in museum conditions, but should be used with caution for permanent works of art)
IV = Fugitive/Very Poor
Oil Absorption: is given in g/100g or grams of oil per 100 grams of pigment Key Top ^ Page Top^
or as H, M, L (see below)
The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works). The higher the oil absorption, generally, the longer it will take to dry when used in oil painting. The addition of driers, siccatives, retardants and other additives can effect the drying time of any specific formulation, or they can be added by the artist to speed up or slow down the drying of oil paints. In some literature the oil absorption rate is given as ml/100g, although not tectonically the same as g/100g, for the purposes of this database they a virtually he same (a ml is a gram of water, not oil).
Depending on the specifications i have available I may also use the following designations:
H = High; - These pigments absorb a lot of oil.
M = Medium; - Average drying or cure rate
L = Low; - Usually very fast driers
Toxicity***: Key Top ^ Page Top^
Under this heading will be a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, art books and art reference works (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), MSDS sheets, the EPA manual: Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans (full PDF here), The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), The Health and the Arts Program - Great Lakes Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH), The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works has a collection of articles on art safety, The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB) and Art Materials Business Guidance
All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but, if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous pigments can be used safely. Very few pigments used in the arts are edible, and even so called "Food Colors" are not meant to be used in large quantities and may have unknown side effects or allergic reactions.
WARNING: Always use a dust mask when working with any dry pigments. Work in a separate area of your studio away from children, pets or other living things. Do not smoke, eat or drink around any art materials. Dispose of all waste materials in an environmentally safe way.
A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible hazard if carelessly handled or ingested over long periods of time;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling toxic substances;
D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with these pigments (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window);
PDF - Booklet Safe Handling of Colour Pigments Copyright © 1995: BCMA, EPSOM, ETAD, VdMI - link from VdMI
The Side Notes Column: Key Top ^ Page Top^
These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. Please remember that they are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided for further info.
(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.
(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the reference source of the information that I have given, or just a link to more detailed information.
? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable references, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.
|Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:***** Key Top ^ Page Top^
|Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
The manufacturer code is to indicate companies that make or supply paints or pigments using the particular pigment. Only those products that are single pigment only will be indicated in this database. In a few cases, the Color Index International has listed a mixture of pigments or chemicals under a single color index pigment name or code, and these will also be designated as if they were a single pigment. The codes next to the pigments in above Color of Art Database may take you off sight where you can find more info or even purchase, if you so desire. These codes are not part of any standard, but were made up by me for this database, with purpose of making them as short as possible.
The links below next to the manufacturer code below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window.
Paint medium or binder code: Key Top ^ Page Top^
Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links.
d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.
a = Acrylic Paint;
ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions;
af = Fluid Acrylics or Airbrush Colors;
k = Alkyd paints;
c = Casein or milk paint;
d = Discontinued
e = Encaustic paints;
g = Gouache;
i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);
o = Oil Paint;
p = Dry Pigment;
t = Tempera or Egg Tempera;
w = Watercolor Paint;
wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.
am = Acrylic medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses
om = Oil painting Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses
wm = Watercolor Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses
GEN = Where there is a generally accepted common historic name associated with a pigment, I have used "GEN" to denote the generic or common historical name of a particular pigment.
Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.
©2014 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.
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Artist Reference Resources:
Natural Pigments, Education, The Best source of Natural and Historical Pigments
Dick Blick Artist Supply: Full Range of art supplies at discount prices
Handprint.com, Guide to Watercolor Pigments, Bruce MacEvoy 2008
|Artist Reference Resources:
Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the Free Art Books Page.
- The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
- The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
- The Science of Painting,
By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
- A Treatise on Painting,
By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
- A Treatise on Painting,
By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
- The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
- The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
- A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
- The Household Cyclopedia,
By Henry Hartshorne 1881
- The Chemistry of Pigments,
By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
- Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
- The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
By DR. JOSEF BERSCH,
translated by CHARLES SALTER,SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON
, 1921 Link
- Materials for Permanent Painting,
By Maximilian Toch 1911
Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:
- The Artist’s Handbook,
by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
- The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
- The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
- Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
Edited by Robert L. Feller
- Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
- Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
- Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
- Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
- Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
- A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
- The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
- The Painter's Handbook,
Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
- Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
- Pigment Compendium,
by Nicholas Eastaugh,
Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004
Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:
American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):
National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.
a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
- Blick Art Materials;
has done a extremely thorough job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuable resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish http://www.coloria.net/index.htm
- Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
- Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
- The Handprint,com;
site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
- The Real Color Wheel;
by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
- Health and Safety in the Arts;
A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
- Household Products Database;
Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
- Natural Pigments:
One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
- Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
- Paintmaking.com: By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
- PCImag.com; Paint & Coatings Indusry
2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
- Dick Blick Artist Supply:
Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
- Kremer Pigmente Europe / Kremer Pigments USA site;
Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
- Earth Pigments:
Specializes in earth pigments.
- Guerra Paint and Pigments:
Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
Lots of Pigments & info
Health and Safety in the Arts References and Info:
- Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
Consumer Product Safety Commission
- Art Materials Business Guidance
Consumer Product Safety Commission
- Art Safety
Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
- Artist Safety
Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
- Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
U. S. Environment Protection Agency
- Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
- Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
- Health and Safety Guides and Publications
American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
- Art Safety
Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
- Health and the Arts Program
The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
- Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
- Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
- Studio Safety
Gamblin Artists Colors