PB Blue Pigments The Color of Art Pigment Database: Pigment Blue, PB

Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference: Color Index Names, Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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Jump to CI Pigment Blue Number:
NB 1, NB 2,
PB 1, PB 1:2; PB 9, PB 15; PB 15:1, PB 15:2, PB 15:3, PB 15:4, PB 15:6, PB 15:34; PB 16, PB 17, PB 24, PB 25, PB 27, PB 28, PB 29, PB 30, PB 31, PB 34, PB 35; PB 36; PB 36:1, PB 60, PB 61, PB 61:1, PB 62, PB 63, PB 66, PB 68, PB 71, PB 72, PB 73, PB 74, PB 75, PB 76, PB 79, PB 80, PB 81, PB 82, PB 84, PB 128,
Aerinite; Apatite; Azurite;Cavansite; Copper Blue; Cupric Hydroxide; Flourescent Blue 2:1; Han Blue; Kinoite; Kyanite; Lapis Lazuli; Manganese Oxide Blue; Mayan Blue; Pentagonite; Ploss Blue; Riebeckite; Sodalite; Tungsten Blue; Turquoise; Ultramarine Ash; Vivianite; Zinc Iron Ferricyanide

Where applicable, you can click on the artist paint or pigment company code found in the "Common Historic and Marketing Name Column" next to the pigments name. The links will take off site where you can find more specific paint, binder, and pigment properties, including MSDS sheets or a retailer that stocks that brand of paint or pigment. Just hit your back button to return. See the Key at the bottom of any page for the artist media or binder company codes and links to the brands websites. NOTE: d in italics indicates a discontinued paint or pigment, all other medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment/paint is in the student grade, not the "artist's" professional premium paint. See the Key (at the bottom of the page) for artist media and binder codes.

Historic violet and Purple Pigments Historic Blue Pigments and Mineral Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic Blue Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Blue  |  CI Pigment Blue  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

N/A

Aerinite

Aërinita;

Aerinite;

Aerinite;

Erinite

N/A

A light blue clay mineral occasionally used as a pigment, it has been found in Andorran murals dated to 1163. It is resistant to chemicals, heat, and light (Ref: Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Art Materials Database);

(Ref Mineralat mindat.org);

(Ref Aerinite Mineral Data);

(Ref Mineral Handbook);

Light Blue

-

I

-

-

-

N/A

Apatite (Blue)

Apatit (Deut.);

Apatite;

Apatito (Esp.);

Blue Apatite

Blue Apatite Genuine [DS.w];

Cobalt Violet Hue [SCH.o];

Fluorapatite;

Moroxite

Phosphorite;

N/A

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, (Ref: wikipedia); (Ref: webminerl.com); (Ref:CAMEO Art materials Database at boston MFA);

translucent green or greenish blue, less often colorless, yellow, blue to violet, pink or brown

-

I

-

A

Lots of pics in a google image search for blue apatite here

N/A

Azurite

Armenian Stone**;

Azul Ceniza;

Azure Spar;

Azurita;

Azurite;

Azurite (coarse grade) [NP.p];

Azurite-Deep Blue [KP.p];

Azurite-Deep, Very Fine [KP.p];

Azurite (fine grade) [NP.p];

Azurite GUNJYOU [KP.p];

Azurite Genuine [DS.w];

Azurite-Greenish Grey-Blue [KP.p];

Azurite MP Deep [KP.p];

Azurite MP exclusive [KP.p];

Azurite MP, extra deep [KP.p];

Azurite MP greenish light [KP.p];

Azurite MP Pale [KP.p];

Azurite Natural [KP.p];

Azurite-Standard [KP.p];

Azurite-very fine [KP.p];

Azurro;

Azurium Citramarinum;

Azzurrite;

Biadetto;

Bice;

Blue Ashes;

Blue Bice;

Blue Mountain;

Blue Verditer;

Bremen Blue;

Bremer Blue?;

Cendre Bleu;

Cendres Blue;

Coeruleum;

Copper Blue;

Copper Glaze;

Lapis Armenius;

Lapis Azurite [OH];

Mountain blue;

Neuwied Blue;

Pigment Blue 30;

Zuni Blue;

see Pigment Blue 30

77420

Natural basic carbonate of copper, Hydroxo copper carbonate;

Blue Verditer and bice is synthetic basic copper carbonate.

(Ref KP); (Ref NP); (Ref Natural Pigments);

** Armenian Stone (Ref info at MFA Boston);

Azurite (Ref info at MFA Fine Arts Boston);

Making Azurite info at webexhibits.org

Bright blue to greenish blue

4

I*

23

B

MSDS

MSDS

* Lightfast in artist paints but affected by acids and atmospheric Sulfur. May sometimes darken or become greenish in oil binders. (Ref);

Courser grades are deeper blue getting lighter the smaller the particle size. (Ref).

N/A

Cavansite

Cavansite, extra fine [KP.p];

N/A

Cavansite;

Hydrated Calcium Vanadium Silicate (Reference at webminerals galleries);

Cavansite gemstone (Reference and pictures);

Calcium vanadium silicate

light pale greenish blue ocean blue

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Copper Blue

Blue Copper [KP.p];

Copper Blue [KP.p];

Koperblauw [KP.p];

N/A

Tricopper (II) Phosphate;

Copper phosphate;

Phosphoric acid copper salt;

CAS 7798-23-4

Very light greenish blue

-

-

-

B

MSDS

-

N/A

Cupric Hydroxide

Bremen Blue;

Cupric Hydroxide

77404

Cupric hydroxide;

Copper hydroxide;

Cuprous hydroxide;

Copper monohydroxide;

CAS 20427-59-2

-

-

-

-

B

MSDS

-

N/A

Han Blue/

Han Purple

Blue Barium Copper Silicate;

Barium Copper Frit;

Chinese Blue;

Chinese Magenta;

Han Blue;

HAN-Blue, fine [KP.p];

HAN-Blue Deep [KP.p];

Han Purple [KP.p];

N/A

Pulverized Ceramic; Barium copper silicate

Deep reddish blue to purple Blue

4

I

L

B

MSDS

Similar to Egyptian Blue PB 31

N/A

Kinoite

Hydrated Calcium Copper

Silicate;

Kinoite

N/A

Natural Hydrated Calcium Copper Silicate (Ref Mineral), (Reference at mindat.org)

light azure blue

4

I

-

B

Similar to Egyptian Blue PB31

N/A

Kyanite

Kyanite;

Kyanite Genuine [DS.w];

kyanos

N/A

Aluminum Silicate*

(Ref), (Mineral Reference at mindat.org), (Reference at webmineral.com);

CAS 1302-76-7

Deep blue**

4

I

-

A

MSDS

* Chemically similar to Lapis Lazuli

** Although usually blue, Kyanite can also be bright green

N/A

Lapis Lazuli

Armenian Blue;

Armenian Stone;

Azurrum Ultramarinum;

Azure Spar;

Blue Stone;

Fra Angelico Blue;

Genuine Lapis Lazuli [WL.o];

Genuine Lapis Lazuli (natural Ultramarine) [DS.a.o.w];

Lazurite (Lapis Lazuli) [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli [GEN | OH];

Lapis Lazuli (Afghanistan, standard)1 [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (Baikal, Russia)1 [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli from Chile [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli Genuine [GEN | DS.a.o.w | DV.o.w];

Lapis Lazuli, greyish-blue [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (premium)1 [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli, pure [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli, sky-blue [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (standard)1 [NP.p];

Lapiz Ultramarine;

Lazuline Blue;

Pigment Blue 29*;

Ultramarine [GEN];

Ultramarinum;

*see Ultramarine Blue PB29

77007

Lazurite, extracted from the semi-precious stone Lapis Lazuli. (Ref Natural Pigments);

Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Sulfate (Pic of huge rocks at palagems.com); (Ref: Mindat.org);

Purifying lapis (Ref: Natural Pigments);

Ultra-marine, means ‘from over-seas’ (Ref: Chpt.2 of The Alchemy of Paint - Ultramarine: from over the seas by Spike Bucklow);

Lapis Lazuli (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Art Materials Database);

Ultramarine blue, natural (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Materials Database);

(Ref: Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser
induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and
light microscopy, © 2008 Elsevier B.V - PDF);

Making pigments: Ultramarine at webexhibits.org;

Bright violet blue to deep blue

4

I

39

A

MSDS1

Natural Mineral of PB29 Ultramarine Blue.;

 

N/A

Manganese Oxide Blue

Manganese Oxide Blue*

N/A

"chemists at OSU have discovered new compounds based on manganese that should address all of those concerns. They are safer to produce, much more durable, and should lead to more environmentally benign blue pigments than any being used now or in the past."

The intense blue pigment can be prepared by introducing manganese into other metal oxides to prepare the trigonal bipyramid structure. Among the examples are scandium aluminum magnesium oxide, lutetium gallium magnesium oxide and indium gallium magnesium oxide. Subramanian* adds, "We needed to add 5% manganese to these oxides to generate the intense blue color."
(Ref: Accidental discovery produces durable new blue pigment oregonstate.edu, 2009);

Patent: US 8282728 B2

Yittrium Indium Manganese Oxide;

Bright to deep blue

-

I

-

A

*Not the same pigment as PB33 Manganese Blue

"The newest—and possibly the best—blue pigment in world history was born, due to manganese ions being structured in an unusual “trigonal bipyramidal coordination” in the presence of extreme heat."

(Ref: UPI.com);

(Ref: Redorbit.com, 2009)

* Mas Subramanian, professor of materials science at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Ore.

N/A

Mayan Blue

Azul Maya;

Maya Blue [NP.p.pd];

Mayan Blue [KP.p];

Mayan Blue Genuine [DS.w*]

N/A

Copal, indigo and the clay mineral palygorskite fused by heat in clay pots creating a unique nano crystal lattice. (Ref sciencedaily.com);

Reference more info on Mayan Blue: "Discovering Archaeology — Decoding the Chemical Complexity of a Remarkable Ancient Paint" from Mayan Pigments.

Greenish blue.

1

I

65

A

Much more light fast than plain indigo.; Thought to be made during human sacrifice rituals (Ref nytimes.com), (Ref pubmed).;

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site

N/A

Pentagonite

Pentagonite [KP.p]

N/A

Calcium-Vanadium-Silicate; (Ref handbookofmineralogy.org), (Ref webmineral.com), (Ref mindat.org)

Light greenish blue

1

I

-

-

-

FB2:1 Flourescent Blue 2:1

Blue Lake;

Flourescent Blue 2:1

Fluorescent Dull Blue;

Process Cyan [DR.g];

-

Flourescent Blue;

A lake made from a fluorescent blue dye that forms a light blue pigment that fluoresces under blue light. It is often used as as adulterant and brightener in printing inks and other paints and pigments. Often used in formulations for Azure and Cyan where light fastness is not a consideration.

Flourescent Blue 2:1 1 III - A used as brighteners in inks and paints

N/A

Ploss Blue

Crystallized Verdigris;

Distilled Verdigris;

Neutral Verdigris;

Ploss Blue;

Purified Verdigris;

See PG20 Verdigris

N/A

Copper calcium acetate;

Neutral verdigris;

(Pigment Ref);

Light greenish blue

-

I*

-

B

MSDS

Light fast but not stable in acidic media like linseed oil.; May act as drier in oil paint

N/A

Riebeckite

Blue Amphibole;

Blue Asbestos;

Blue Cape Asbestos;

Blue Ochre;

Crocidolite;

Osannita;

Osannite;

Riebeckite1 [NP.p];

N/A

Asbestiform mineral; Sodium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide (Ref)

Dark Blue

2

I

20

C

MSDS1

ICSC

Do not breath dust, a NIOSH-certified dust mask should be worn when working with the dry pigment (Ref); Contains asbestos

N/A

Sodalite

Sodalite [KP.p];

Sodalite Genuine* [DS.w];

Sodalite SHIUN-MATSU [KP.p];

N/A

Sodium Aluminum Silicate Chloride; Mineral (Ref); (Pics)

light pale violet blue to dark blue

3

I

-

A

Similar to Lapis Lazuli (Ref); * more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.

N/A

Tungsten Blue

Blue Carmine;

Blue Tungsten Oxide;

Bright Blue Tungsten;

Mineral Blue;

Thessié Blue;

Tungsten Blue;

Tungsten Blue Oxide;

Tungsten Oxide

77901

Tungsten Oxide;

Tungsten Blue Oxide (W2O3, WO3) is created by calcining Ammonium Paratungstate under reducing conditions or formed by the action of varied deoxidizing agents on tungstic acid, the exact method can be different for each manufacturer. It is not a single chemical compound, as it may consist of ammonium, hydrogen, tin, zinc, tungsten trioxide, tungsten bronzes and/or other tungsten oxides. (Ref International Tungsten Industry Association);

Dark blue-violet to bright blue, faint blue or green blue

-

-

-

A

Blue tungsten oxide is used primarily for the production of tungsten metal powder and tungsten carbide. (Ref);

Used as a Aquarelle Pigment which is stable to light and air. (Ref Concise encyclopedia chemistry By Mary Eagleson pg.1129);

"employed for watercolour and oil painting." Rose (1916) (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.375);

Used as pigment in ceramics (Ref);

There is a chemically very similar yellow-green form of Tungsten Oxide (WO3). It is often called Yellow Tungsten Oxide, Tungsten Yellow Oxide or simply Yellow Oxide.

N/A

Turquoise

Azure Spar;

Calaite;

Chalchihuitl;

Chalcosiderite;

Calliana;

Callais;

Faustite;

Kingman Green Turquoise Genuine [DS.w*];

Mecca Stones;

Sleeping Beauty Turquoise Genuine** [DS.o.w];

Turquoise;

Turquoise, sky-blue [KP.p];

N/A

Natural mineral turquoise; hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium (Mindat Ref); Chalcosiderite (Ref); Faustite (Ref); (Pics); More mineral info can be found here at delminsociety.net.

Turquoise (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO materials Database);

Green to bluish green to blue

3

I

-

A

Semi precious stone often used for jewelry, notably by Native Americas;

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.;

** Sleeping Beauty Mine web site

N/A

Ultramarine Ash

Ash Blue;

Blue ashes;

Cendres Bleues;

Cenere d’azzurro;

Ceneri d'azzurro;

Mineral Gray;

Sanders Blue;

Saunder's Blue;

Ultramarine Ash [KP.p | SI.p];

Ultramarine Ashes

see Ultramarine Blue PB29

N/A

Ultramarine Ashes (Lapis Lazuli); The remains after the best pigment has been extracted from Lapis Lazuli. It consists of mostly colorless minerals and a small amount of ultramarine. (Ref); (Ref); (Wikipedia Ref); (Pic at Kremer Pigments); (Webexhibits.org); (Sinopia Pigments Pic); (Definition); (on value as wash Ref);

Light to dull blueish gray*

3-4

I

-

A

Good gray for flesh, foliage, skies and shadows on drapery (Ref) (Ref); "high degree of transparency and was valued as a blue glazing pigment"(Ref);

*There are various grades from dull blue to almost completely gray.

N/A

Vivianite

Angelardite;

Anglarite;

Blue Iron Earth;

Blue Iron Ore;

Blue Ochre [BR | NP.o.p];

Blue Ochre (Vivianite)** [NP.o.p];

Angelardite;

Anglarite;

Glaucosiderite;

Mullicite;

Native Prussian blue;

Ocre Blu;

Ocre martiale bleue;

Odontolite;

Paravivianite;

Phosphate of Iron;

Vivianite [KP.p];

Vivianite - Blue Ochre* [DS.w];

N/A

Hydrated Iron Phosphate

CAS 13463-10-0

Mid to greenish dark blue sometimes with with reddish undertone

† hue shift towards yellow (becoming greenish), may be do to chemical processes.***

(Ref Natural Pigments);

3

I*

-

A

MSDS

*Lightfast but may turn yellowish due to the effects of environment or other pigments; (Ref Natural Pigments);

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.;

** More info on this pigment can be found at Natural Pigments.

***Color changes may be do to chemical processes (Ref Techniques of the Romanesque and Gothic wall paintings in the Holy Sepulchre Chapel, Winchester Cathedral, by Howard, 1995)

N/A

Zinc Iron Ferricyanide

Zinc-Iron Blue;

Zinc Iron Ferricyanide

77530

Zinc Iron Ferricyanide

-

-

-

-

-

-

Natural Blue Pigments - NV Natural Blue - Color Index Name: NV
Historic Blue Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Blue  |  CI Pigment Blue  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

NB1

Indigo

Baghdad Indigo;

C.I. Natural Blue 1 (natural);

C.I. Pigment Blue 66 (synthetic);

Dyer's woad;

Indaco;

Inde Blew;

Inde Blue;

Indian Blue;

Indigo [NP.p];

Indigo Blue;

Indigo, Genuine Indian [KP.p];

Indigo, Genuine, pieces [KP.p];

Indigo, made of Woad [KP.p];

Indicum;

Indigotin;

Lombardy Indigo;

Lulax;

Natural Blue 1;

Pastel;

Rich Indigo;

Rock Indigo;

Stone Blue;

see PB66

75780

Natural Indigotin;

Fermented extract from the leaves of Indigofera tinctoria or Baphicacanthus cusia (Ref Pigment Extraction Techniques from the Leaves of Indigofera tinctoria, CMU. Journal (2002) Vol. 1, p.149)

Dark Greenish to reddish Blue

† Fades

4

III

-

A*

The dye used for blue jeans

** Natural indigo may be slightly toxic (Ref at Dick Blick)

NB2

Indigo Carmine

Blue Carmine;

Blue of England;

Blue of Holland;

CI Acid Blue 74;

Chemic Blue;

C.I. Natural Blue 2;

C.I. Natural Blue 63;

Composition Blue;

FD&C Blue No. 2;

Food Blue 1;

Indigo Carmine;

Indigo Purple;

Indigotine;

Indigotin Blue [KP.p];

Sodium Indigotin Disulfonate;

Saxon Blue;

Saxony Blue;

Sulphate of Indigo;

Indigo Disulphonic Acid (Br.);

Natural Blue 63 (aluminum salt);

Natural Blue 2

73015

Natural Sodium Indigotin Disulfonate;

Sulphoindigotic acid;

Natural Indigo treated with sulfuric acid (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.201);

CAS 860-22-0

Dark blueish purple

-

III

-

A

Indigo Carmine (Ref at Boston Fine Art)

Blick Art Materials' Current Promo Code

Utrecht Sale Items and Current Promo Code

PB - Pigment Blue Pigment Blue - Color Index Name: PB
Historic Blue Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Blue  |  CI Pigment Blue  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque 4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

PB1

Victoria Blue

Cascade Blue;

Fast blue Toner BR;

C.I. Pigment Blue 1;

Fast Blue Lake BO;

Fast Royal Blue Lake;

Pigment Blue 1;

Ultra Blue B;

Victoria Blue PMA;

42595:2

Organic;

Triphenylmethane Phospho-tungstomolybdic acid salt;

CAS 1325-87-7

Bright reddish blue

4

IV

† Darkens

45

A

MSDS

-

PB1:2

Victoria Blue SMA

C.I. Pigment Blue 1:2;

Lamprolac Blue RM;

Pigment Blue 1:2;

Victoria Blue SMA;

42595:3

Organic;

Triphenylmethane Silicomolybdic acid salt;

CAS 69980-72-9

Bright reddish blue

4

IV

45

A

-

PB9

Pigment Blue 9

C.I. Pigment Blue 9;

Pigment Blue 9

42025:1

Organic;

Triphenylmethane Phospho-tungstomolybdic acid salt;

CAS 1325-74-2

Bright Greenish Blue

-

-

45

A

-

PB15

Phthalocyanine Blue

Alizarin Blue Lake;

Antique Sky Blue [HO];

Azure Blue (hue) [LA.a];

Azure Hue [SE.p];

Blue MC [EP.p];

Bleu Minéral [SE];

Blue Compose;

Blue Lake [OH.o];

Cerulean Blue Hue [CR.a | WN.w];

Cerulean Blue (Substitute) [SE.p];

Cerulean Blue Phthalo;

C.I. Pigment Blue 15;

Cobalt Blue (hue) [HO.af];

Cobalt Teal (Hue) [DV.k];

Cyanine Blue B;

Gafast Pigment Blue 15;

Heliogen Blue [SI.p];

Hogar Blue [LB.av.o];

Hoggar Blue [LB.av.o];

Horizon Blue;

Hortensia Blue [LB.o];

Hydranger Blue;

Hydrangea Blue [HO.o];

Intense Blue [WN.w.];

Katsura Blue [HO.a];

Lonocyanine Alpha Blue;

Manganese Blue Hue [DS.o.w | DV.k.o | WN.w.wp];

Manganese Blue Nova [HO.w];

Marine Blue [HO.wo];

Monestial Blue [DR.o];

Monestial Blue (Phthalo) [DR.o.t];

Monestial Turquoise [DR.o];

Monestial Turquoise (Phthalo) [DR];

Old Holland Blue [OH.o];

Opaque Cerulean (hue) [HO.af];

Oriental Blue [HO.o];

Permanent Blue [LA.a];

Phthalo Blue [GEN | DB.o.a | DR.a.a(s3hb).a(s3mb).o | DS.o | DV.a.af.k..o.w | HO.wo | MW.o | RT.a.a.o.wo | SE.w | SI.p | WN.k.w];

Phthalo Blue Deep [LA.a];

Phthalo Blue Green [RT.w];

Phthalo Blue (Green Shade) [DS.a.o | DR.a | UT.a.o];

Phthalo Blue (GS) [DS.a.o];

Phthalo Blue Red [GU | RT.w];

Phthalo Blue (Red Shade) [CR.ao.o | DS.a.o | DR.a.w | DV.w | HO.w | MG.w | WN.wo];

Phthalo Blue (Yellow Shade) [HO.w ];

Phthalo Blue (RS) [CR.ao.o | DS.a.o | DR];

Phthalocyanine Blue [GEN | DB.a | PF | SE.p];

Phthalocyanine Blue (Green Shade) [LQ.a];

Phthalocyanine Blue Red Shade [MG];

Pigment Blue 15;

Primary Blue [DB.a | DR.a | SE.p | WN.g];

Primary Cyan [HO,g];

Primary Phthalo Blue [PF.o];

Process Cyan;

Prussian Blue (hue) [LA.a];

Prussian Blue Hue [MR.o];

Prussian Blue Phthalo [MR.o];

Scheveningen Blue Deep [OH.o];

Shiva Blue Deep [SV];

Thalo Blue [BR | GRd];

Transparent Blue [HO.o];

Winsor Blue [WN.a.a.g];

Winsor Blue (Green Shade) [WN.o.w.wp.wp(L)];

Winsor Blue (Red Shade) [WN.o.w.wp.wp(L)];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

a form

Synthetic organic;

Copper Phthalocyanine;

Tetracholoro Phthalocyanine;

The organic colorant is precipitated on aluminum hydrate base to form a intense dark blue lake pigment. Color variations are achieved by adjusting the formulation, for example chlorinating the copper phthalocyanine produces greener pigments. (Ref: CAMEO Database at Boston MFA)

Download the Gharda Pigments Tech Sheet PDF (Ref)

(Ref: PCImag.com Article);

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Phthalo Blue (i);

Phthalo Blue (ii);

CAS 147-14-8

Intense deep blue in mass tone reddish to greenish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8;8;8 (CR)

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

35-78

A*

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and light fastness (Ref handprint.com)

*Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB15:1

Phthalocyanine Blue RS

Berlin Blue [MA.o.w];

Blockx Blue [BX.o.w];

Cerulean Blue Hue [MA.g];

C.I. Pigment Blue 15:1;

Cyanine Blue BS;

Cyan Thalo [CH];

Indigo [SE.a];

Intense Blue [CH];

Noblesse Blue [MA.o(HD)];

Permanent Blue [LK];

Phthalocyanine Alpha Blue;

Phthalo Blue [DB.o | GB.o.o | KP.p | LK | MA.a.p | SCH.w | SE.o | WN.o];

Phthalo Blue GS [RGH.o];

Phthalo Blue, Primary Blue [KP.p];

Phthalo Blue Red [RT];

Phthalo Blue (Reddish) [SQ.a];

Phthalo Blue (Red Shade) [GO.a.af.ao | TA.a.af | KA.p | SE.a | WN.a];

Phthalo Blue RS [DR.w | GO.a.af.ao | RGH.o];

Phthalo Cyan [CH];

Pigment Blue 15:1;

Prussian Blue (hue) [LK];

Thalo Blue RS;

Transparent Blue [OH.a];

Turquois (Phthalo) [GO.ab];

Winsor Blue RS [WN];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

a form

Copper Phthalocyanine;

 

C32H16CuN8

 

CAS 12239-87-1

Intense deep blue in mass tone reddish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8;8;8

46

A*

MSDS

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and lightfastness (Ref handprint.com)

**Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB15:2

Phthalocyanine Blue

Alpha Blue - NC;

Antique Bronze Blue [HO.w];

Blue Green;

Blue Lake [OH.w];

C.I. Pigment Blue 15:2;

Phthalo Blue [GB.o | OH.a];

Phthalo Blue Red Shade [CAS.k];

Phthalocyanine;

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Pigment Blue 15:2;

Scheveningen Blue Deep [OH.w];

XSL Phthalo Blue, Royal Blue [KP.p];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

a form

Copper Phthalocyanine;

CAS 12239-87-1

Intense deep blue in mass tone reddish to greenish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)

55-78

A*

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and light fastness (Ref handprint.com)

*Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB15:3

Phthalocyanine Blue BGS

Alizarin Blue Lake [SE.o];

Avatar Blue [MA.o(HD)];

Azure (hue) [LK];

Bleu Phtalocyanine [LB.o];

Bleu Primaire [LB.o];

Blockx Blue [BX];

Blue Lake [SE.os];

Brilliant Blue [UT.a];

Cerulean Blue (hue) [HO.af];

Cerulean Blue Hue [UT.a | SH.w];

C.I. Pigment Blue 15:3

Cobalt Blue (hue) [HO.ag];

Cobalt Blue Hue (Primary Blue) [DR.o];

Cyan (Primary) [LK];

Cyanin Blue [PF.w];

Cyanine Blue [PF.w];

Cyanine Blue BGS;

Dark Blue [KP.p];

Dark Blue Medium [DB.ag];

Helio Blue [SCH.g];

Helio Cerulean [SCH.w];

Heliogen® Blue [KP.p];

Marine Blue;

Manganese Blue Hue [AS | UT | WN];

Manganese Blue Nova [HO.a];

Oriental Blue [HO.a];

Peacock Blue [SH.w];

Phthalo Blue [AS | CR.a(jo).a .ao.o | DR.w | DS.a.i.o.w | GO.ab | DV | JO.a | LB.o | LK | MA.o(artis) | MG.g.w | RF.e | ROSS.o | SCH.a.o.p | UT.w | WL.o.p];

Phthalo Blue (Blue Shade) [MW.wo];

Phthalo Blue Cyan [SCH.a];

Phthalo Blue Green [GU | RT];

Phthalo Blue (Greenish) [SQ.a];

Phthalo Blue Green Shade [DR.w | DS.w | KA.p | RGH.o.p | SE.a | TA.a.af | WN.a];

Phthalo Blue (GS) [ DR.w | DS.w];

Phthalo Blue Lake [MH.o];

Phthalo Blue Primary Blue [SI.p];

Phthalo Blue Red Shade [RGH.o.p];

Pthalo Blue Slight Red [GU];

Phthalo Blue royal blue [KP.p];

Phthalocyanine Beta Blue;

Phthalocyanine Blue [ KA.ad | LQ.a | MG.a.o | MT | UT];

Phthalocyanine Blue (G.S.) [KA.o];

Phthalocyanine Blue (Green Shade) [LQ.a];

Phthalocyanine Blue Lake [MH];

Phthalocyanine Turquoise [MA.p];

Phthalo Turquoise [WNd];

Pigment Blue 15:3;

Primary Blue [BX.o.w | LB.o | LK | LQ.a];

Primary Blue (Cyan) [LK | MA.a.g.o.w.w];

Primary Phthalo Blue [PF.o];

Primary Phthalocyanine Blue [PF.o];

Process Cyan [DR | WN.a];

Prussian Blue (hue) [LA.a];

Richeson Blue [SQ.a];

Royal Blue;

Scheveningen Blue [OH.o.w];

Sky-Blue [KP.p | MA];

Thalo Blue GS;

Translucent Cyan [SCH.o(Mus)];

Transparent Phthalo Blue (Green Shade) [];

Winsor Blue GS [WN];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

b form

Beta Copper Phthalocyanine;

 

C32H16CuN8

 

CAS 147-14-8

Intense deep blue in mass tone greenish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8;8;8 (CR)

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

BWS
8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)

45-84

A*

MSDS

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and light fastness (Ref handprint.com)

 

*"Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, although those made before 1982 contained some PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)" (Ref Dick Blick pigment info)

PB15:4

Phthalocyanine Blue NCF

Blue Phthalocyanine Beta Form;

Cerulean Blue Hue (primaire) [SE.o];

C.I. Pigment Blue 15:4

Copper Phthalocyanine Blue;

Cyanine Blue NCF;

Manganese Blue Hue [DB.w | GB.o];

Manganese Blue Phthalo [RT.o];

Phthalo Blue [CL | DB.w | GR.o.o.w.w.wo?* | RT];

Phthalo Blue Green [RT.o];

Phthalo Blue (Green Shade) [CAS.k | GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao];

Phthalo Blue G.S. [GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao ];

Phthalocyanine Beta Blue NCF;

Phthalocyanine Blue NCF;

Phthalo Blue (NCFβ-Form);

Phthalo Blue G (NCNF);

Pigment Blue 15:4;

Primary Cyan;

Shiva Blue Light [SV];

Thalo Blue [GR.o.o.w.w.wo];

Transparent Phthalo Blue G.S. [GO.ab];

Transparent Phthalo Blue (Green Shade) [GO.ab];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

b form

Beta Copper Phthalocyanine;

CAS 147-14-8

Intense deep blue in mass tone reddish to greenish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8; 7; 7
(Sun Chemical)

50-84

A*

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and lightfastness (Ref handprint.com)

? The Dick Blick site has the Phthalocyanine Grumbacher Pre-Tested Oils labled "Phthalo", to my knowledge Grumbacher has always used the term "Thalo" in their line of Phthalocyanine colors.

*Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB15:6

Phthalocyanine Blue

C.I. Pigment Blue 15:6;

Cobalt Blue (Phthalo) [LK];

Helio Blue Reddish [SCH.p];

Helio Blue RS [SCH];

Old Holland Blue [OH.w];

Phthalo Blue [LK];

Phthalo Blue Red [RT.o];

Phthalo Blue Red Shade [DS.w | OH.a];

Phthalo Blue RS [DS.w];

Phthalo Blue Reddish [KP.p | SCH.p];

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Phthalocyanine Blue Epsilon;

Phthalocyanine Blue (red shade) [LQ.a];

Pigment Blue 15:6;

Translucent Oriental Blue [SCH.o(Mus)];

Plus numerous hues of less lightfast or more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

74160

e form

Epsilon Copper Phthalocyanine;

CAS 147-14-8

Intense deep blue in mass tone reddish to greenish bright blue in shades

4

I

BWS
8;8;8

35

A*

MSDS

ICSC

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

Particle size effects color and lightfastness (Ref handprint.com)

*Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB15:34?

Phthalocyanine Alfa Blue

Alfa Blue;

C.I. Pigment Blue 15.34

CP BXUE 154018;

Copper Phthaocyanine Blue;

Phthalocyanine Alfa Blue;

Phthalocyanine Beta Blue

74160

Copper Phthaocyanine Blue;

CAS 147-14-8

Deep blue

4

II

40

A*

MSDS

ICSC

 

?Typo

Extremely powerful tint strength, usually extended to some degree;

Staining;

*Phthalo Blues have no significant hazards, may have traces of suspected carcinogen, teratogen. Before 1982 samples may be contaminated with traces of PCB

(Ref Dick Blick pigment info);

(Ref: CAMEO Materials Database at Boston Fine Arts);

PB16

Heliogen Blue L 7560

Brilliant Green Blue [LK];

Caribbean Blue [OH.o.w];

C.I. Pigment Blue 16;

Free Base Phthalocyanine;

Gafast Pigment Blue 16;

Green Blue [HO.wo.];

Heliogen Blue L 7560 [BASF];

Helio Turquoise [SCH.g.w];

Marine Blue [HO.w];

Phthalo Blue Green Shade [ OH.a];

Phthalocyanine Turquoise;

Phthalo Turquoise [DV.w | GU | LK | SCH.a.p | WN.w.wp];

Pigment Blue 16;

Sapphire blue [LB.o];

Translucent Turquoise [SCH.o(Mus)];

Turquoise [LK];

Turquoise Green [MA.o.w | UT.w];

74100

Metal Free Phthalocyanine;

Free Base Phthalocyanine;

(Ref: Industrial Organic Pigments: Production, Properties, Applications,  By Willy Herbst, Klaus Hunger, ©2004, pg. 423); Buy Printed Version at Amazon

 

(Ref: Tech Sheet PDF at ghardapigments.com)

CAS 574-93-6

Intense deep green blue in mass tone, greenish bright blue in shades

3-4

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

35-45

A

MSDS

-

PB17

Phthalocyanine Cyan

Antique Turquoise [HO.w(ant)];

Blue Lake;

C.I. Pigment Blue 17

Cyan Blue;

Fast Sky Blue Lake;

Katsura Blue [HO.g];

Peacock Blue [HO.w];

Phthalo Cyan;

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Phthalocyanine Cyan;

Pigment Blue 17;

Pure Blue (Primary Blue) [HO.g];

Seikalight Blue A612;

Sky Blue

74180

74200

Barium salt of trisulphonated phthalocyanine blue; C.I. 74160;

CAS 71799-04-7

Bright greenish blue

4

I

35

A

-

PB24

Ichomine Turquoise Blue G

C.I. Pigment Blue 24;

Erioglaucine;

FD & C Blue 1;

Ichomine Turquoise Blue G;

Peacock Blue;

Pigment Blue 24;

Symuler Fast Blue 4198;

42090:1

Inorganic; Triphenylmethane;

CAS 6548-12-5

Bright greenish blue

-

IV

-

A

used in color process inks, colored pencils and low cost watercolors

PB25

Pigment Blue 25

C.I. Pigment Blue 25;

Congo Blue;

Pigment Blue 25;

Symuler Fast Blue 4198

21180

Disazo;

CAS 10127-03-4

Reddish navy

-

II-III

-

A

-

PB27

Prussian Blue

American Blue;

Ammonium Prussian Blue;

Antwerp Blue*** [AS | WN.w.wp.wp(L)];

Antwerpener Blau;

Antwerpener Blue;

Ariabel Dark Blue;

Azul de Amberes;

Azul de Prusia;

Berlin Blue;

Berlin Green*6;

Bleu d'Anversa;

Bleu de prusse [LB.o];

Bleu di Prussia;

Bleu Mineral;

Blue Ferrite;

Blue Solfort Milori;

Bronze Blue*****;

Brunswick Blue****;

Celestial Blue****;

C.I. Pigment Blue 27;

China Blue;

Chinese Blue*****;

Delfter blue;

Erlangen blue;

French Blue;

Gas Blue*****

Haarlem Blue;

Haerlem Blue;

Hamburg Blue;

Ink Blue;

Inorganic Synthetic Ferriferrocyanide;

Iron Blue;

Leitch's Blue;

Louise Blue;

Mansa Blue;

Mineral Blue;

Miloriblau;

Milori Blue*, *****;

Milori Blue Micronised;

Monthier Blue;

Monthier's Blue;

Oriental Blue;

Paste Blue;

Paris Blue [KP.p];

Parisian (Prussian) Blue Extra [OH.w];

Persian Blue;

Pigment Blue 27;

Potash Blue;

Preussischblau;

Prussian Blue [GEN | AS | CAS.k | CH | CL | DB.o.o.w | DR.o.o(georg).o. w.w | DS.i.o.p.w | DV.o.w | GR.o.o.w.w.wo | GU | HO.g.o.w.wo | KA.o.p | KP.p | LB.o | LK | MA.g.o(artis).o.p.w.w | MG.g.o.w | MH.o | MT | MR.o | MW.o.wo | PF.o.o | RGH.o.p | RF.e | ROSS.o | RT.o.o.w.wo | SCH.g.o.o(Mus).p.w | SE.o.os.p.t.w | SH.w | SV | SQ.a | UT.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.g.k.o.wo.w.w.wp.];

Prussian Blue (Milori) [KA.p | WL.o];

Prussian Blue (Milori blue) [SI.p];

Prussian/Paris Blue [SCH.o(Mus).p];

Steel Blue*****;

Soluble Blue;

Soul Blue [MA.o(HD)];

Toning Blue;

True Prussian Blue [PF];

Turnbull's Blue;

VossenblauNach;

Vossen Blue® ;

Wasserblau;

Water Blue;

Wilkinson’s Blue

77510

Inorganic;

iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II);

Ferric Ammonium Ferrocyanide; (Ref webexhibits.org);

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Prussian Blue;

Making pigments: Prussian Blue at webexhibits.org;

CAS 12240-15-2;

CAS 14038-43-8;

CAS 25869-00-5

Deep dark blue, green undertone

†Fades**

4

I-II**

BWS
7-8;5-6;3-4
(guerra paint)

45

B

MSDS

Produces highly toxic hydrogen cyanide gas if heated to high temperatures or treated with acid or ultraviolet radiation (Ref Tucson Art Hazards). ;

Found on Nazi gas chamber walls as evidence of cyanide gas (Ref);

Purity may to have effect on stability (Ref: Industrial chemistry: a manual for the student and manufacturer, edited by Allen Rogers, 1919, p 398); See free art Books Page

* Milori Blue variety (the most common variety but usually still named Prussian Blue), is said to be a more stable form (Ref at Blue Ridge oil paints);

** According to tests posted on the internet, this pigment seems to fade slightly within a short time and then stabilizes and is highly lightfast. Handprint (Ref), wetcanvas.com thread post #2 (Ref). \it seems manufacture method or imourites play a role in the light fastness. Guerra paint and Pigment rates their Prussian Blue in a water dispersion as blue wool scale 7-8 in masstone (excellent), but rapidly declining to poor in tints.

***Antwerp Blue is a derivative of Prussian Blue. The color strength is weaker than that of Prussian Blue for it has been reduced with Alumina (Ref Dictionary of Artists' Oil Pigments: Their Chemical and Physical Properties by R. Bruce Handlong, 1969)

**** Brunswick Blue is Prussian blue precipitated onto a base of barium sulfate (barytes). (Ref Pigment Compendium p.95);

***** The Milori Blue variety is a lighter shade;

Chinese Blue "is considered the finest grade of Prussian Blue, it has a greenish undertone";

"Bronze Blue is a variety of Prussian Blue showing a sheen when viewed from an angle.";

"Gas Blues are made direct from gas liquors instead of crystallized ferrocyanide.";

Steel Blue is the grey-blue form (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77510)

*6 Berlin Green is described as Ferric ferricyanide a "Precipitate potassium ferricyanide with ferric chloride" in the Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants chemical constitution numbers CI 77533;

PB27:1

Prussian Blue

C.I. Pigment Blue 27:1;

Prussian Blue [DV.k. | GB.o.p];

Pigment Blue 27:1

see above PB27 for other names

77510:1

Ferri-ammonium ferrocyanide

Dark greenish blue

4

I

45

B

-

PB28

Cobalt Blue

Aluminate;

Arctic Blue No.3;

Azul de Cobalto;

Binder’s Cobalt Blue;

Bleu Cobalto;

Bleu de Cobalt;

Blue de Thenard;

Blue cobalt aluminate;

Cerulean Blue (hue);

Cerulean Blue Light (hue) [RGH.o];

C.I. Pigment Blue 28;

Cobalt Aluminate;

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel;

Cobalt Bermuda Blue [GU];

Cobalt Blue [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | BR | CAS.k | CL | CR.ao.o | DB.a.w | DR.a.t.w | DS.a.o.w | DV.a.af.k.o.w | GB.o.p | GO.a.af.ag.ao | GR.o.w.wo?* | HO.a.g.o.w.wo | KA.o.p | LA.a | LB.o | LK | LQ.a | MA.a | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MR.o | MT | MW.o | OH.a.o.w | RF.e | RGH.o.p | RT.a.o.w.wo | TA.a.af | SH.w | SV | SE.a.w | SQ.a | TA.a. | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.a.g.k.o.wo.w.w.wp.wp(L)];

Cobalt Blue Dark [SI.p | KP.p];

Cobalt Blue Dark, light greenish hue [KP.p];

Cobalt Blue Dark (red shade) [GU];

Cobalt Blue Deep [DV.w | HO.o | MA.o.o(artis).p.w | WL.o.p];

Cobalt Blue (Genuine) [CH];

Cobalt Blue Light [DV | GU | KP.p | MA.o.o(artis).p.w | RT.o | SCH.a.g.o.o(Mus).p.w | SI.p];

Cobalt Blue, Medium [SI.p | KP.p];

Cobalt Blue Medium (red shade) [GU];

Cobalt Blue Pale [HO.o | KP.p];

Cobalt Blue (Primary Blue) [HO];

Cobalt Blue Pure [UT.o];

Cobalt Blue Red [GU];

Cobalt Blue, Sapporo [KP.p];

Cobalt Blue Turquoise, light [KP.p];

Cobalt Colanyl Oxide Blue;

Cobalt Teal [GB.o | MG.w];

Cobalt Turquoise [GR.o.wo| HO.g.wo];

Cobalt Turquoise Light [HO.w | KA.o];

Cobalt Ultramarine;

Daipyroxide Blue;

Gahn’s Ultramarine;

Kings Blue;

Kobaltblau;

Leithner Blue;

Leyden Blue;

Light Cobalt Blue (Genuine) [CH];

Midnight Blue No.1;

Murano Blue [MA.o(Ren)];

Pigment Blue 28;

Primary Blue;

Royal Blue [PF.o;

Royal Blue 299;

Shepherd Artic Blue;

Shepherd Blue;

Smalt Blue;

Thénard's Blue***;

True Blue;

True Cobalt Blue [PF.o]

77346

Inorganic;

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel (CoAl2O4) is produced by calcining, at high temperature, a mixture of Cobalt (II) Oxide, and Aluminum (III) Oxide in varyied ratios forming a interdiffused crystalline spinel. It may include any one or more of the modifiers MgO, ZnO, Li2O and/or TiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

More information at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Art Materials Database;

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (Ref: The Use of Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments in Industrial Coatings
By Kevin Biller, PCI mag, April, 2010, PCImag.com)
:

Synthetic Cobaltous Aluminate;

Oxides of Cobalt and Aluminum;

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel;

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel (i);

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel (ii);

Cobalt Aluminate Blue Spinel (iii);

Cobalt Aluminum Blue;

Cobalt Blue;

Making Cobalt Blue Pigment at webexhibits.org

 

CoO + Al2O3

 

CPMA 13-26-2

CAS 1333-88-6;

CAS 1345-16-0

Greenish to Mid-shade Blue;

†Whitens

2-3

I

BWS
8;8;8 (CR)

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

25-37

B

MSDS

MSDS

?* There is a typo on the Dick Blick site indicating Grumbacher Max Artists' Oil Colors Cobalt Blue is PB36, according to the Grumbacher site it is PB28.

*** Thénard's blue was actually a specific process for making a deep blue Cadmium pigment invented by Louis Jaques Thénard.

In time is has become to be used as a term for "cobalt blue" in general. (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008);

(Ref: at webexhibits.org)

PB29

Ultramarine Blue

Armenian Blue;

Antique Pale Blue;

Antique Ultramarine [HO.w(ant)];

Armenian blue;

Artificial Ultramarine;

Ash Blue;

Azure blue;

Aazur d'Acre;

Azzuro oltramarino;

Azzurrum transmarinum;

Azzurrum ultramarine;

Bleu Outremer [LB.o];

Blue (Ultramarine) [DV];

Blue Violet Deep [RGH.o];

Brilliant Blue [DR.g];

Brilliant Blue Purple;

Brilliant Ultramarine;

Cerulean Blue Hue;

Capri Blue [MA.o(Med)];

C.I. Pigment Blue 29;

Cobalt Blue (hue);

Cobalt Blue Hue [DR | GR.w | MA | UT.a.o];

Cobalt Blue (ultram) [RT];

Cobalt Blue Ultramarine [RT.a.o];

Cool Blue [MA.o(HD)];

Dark Ultramarine Blue (Red Shade) [SE.a];

Deep Ultramarine [PF.o];

Deep Ultramarine Blue [CH | PF.o];

Dolly Blue;

Extra Pure Ultramarine Blue [MR.o];

Factitious Ultramarine;

French Blue;

French Ultra Blue [DB.o.w];

French Ultra Light Extra [OH.o.w];

French Ultramarine [AS | DB.o | DS.a.o.p.w | DR.o.o.t.w | DV.af.w | GR.w | KA | RT.w | SE.o | WN.k.o.wo.w.wp.wp(L)];

French Ultramarine Blue [GEN | CR.ao.o | DB.o.w | DR | GR.o.o.wo | MW.o.wo | RT | SE.o | UT.o.w | WN.w.wp.wp(L)];

French Ultramarine Blue Deep [BX.w];

French Ultramarine Extra [OH.a];

French Ultramarine Light [BX.w | OH];

French Ultramarine Light Extra [OH.o.w];

French Ultramarine (R.S.) [KA.o];

French Ultramarine (Red Shade) [DV.w];

Genuine Lapis Lazuli [WL.o];

Genuine Lapis Lazuli (natural Ultramarine) [DS.a.o.w];

German Ultramarine;

Gmelin's Blue;

Guimet’s Blue;

Lapis Lazuli** [GEN |OH];

Lapis Lazuli (hue** see notes) [GEN | BX.o];

Lapis Lazuli (Afghanistan, standard) [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (Baikal, Russia) [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli from Chile [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli Genuine [GEN | DS.a.o.w | DV.o.w];

Lapis Lazuli, greyish-blue [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (premium) [NP.p];

Lapis Lazuli, pure [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli, sky-blue [KP.p];

Lapis Lazuli (standard) [NP.p];

Lapiz Ultramarine;

Lazuline Blue;

Lazurstein;

Lazurite (Lapis Lazuli) [NP.p];

Lefranc Blue [LB.o];

Light Ultramarine [PF.o.w];

Light Ultramarine Blue [CH | GO.a | PF.o];

Lime Blue***;

Laundry Blue;

Michelangelo Blue [MA.o(Ren)];

Navy Blue;

New Blue;

Oltramarino;

Oriental Blue;

Permanent Blue [DS.o | DR.o.o.w | GR.o.wo];

Permanent Blue (Ultramarine) [GR.o];

Permanent Blue (Ultramarine Blue) [GR.o];

Pierre d'azur;

Pigment Blue 29;

Primary Blue;

Royal Blue [CH];

Sky Blue;

Sky Blue Ultramarine [MA.p.w];

Spanish Ultramarine [GU];

Synthetic Ultramarine;

True Ultramarine Blue [PF];

Ultra Blue [AS];

Ultra Blue Deep [OH.w];

Ultra Green Shade [DV.w | WN.o];

Ultra Red [GR.o];

Ultramarine [GEN | AS | DR.a.a.a(s3hb).a(s3mb).o.w | HO.o.af | LB.o | LK | MA.a.a.o(artis) | RT.a.o.wo | WN.a.a.g.w];

Ultramarine Deep [HO.o | MA.p];

Ultramarine Light [HO.o | MA.p | SH.w];

Ultramarine (Green Shade) [DV.w | WN.w.wp.];

Ultramarine Blue [GEN | AS | BR | CAS.k | CH | CL | CR.a | DB.a.a.o.w | DS.a.i.o.p.w | DV.a.af.k.o.w | EP.p | GB.o.o.p | GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao | GR.w.w | HO.a.ag.o.o.w.wo | KA.ad.o.p | KP.p | LA.a | LB.av | LQ.a | MA.o(artis) | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MT | OH.a.o.w | PF.o.w | RGH.o.p | RF.e | ROSS.o | SCH.a | SE.os.o.t | SQ.a | TA.a.af | UT.a.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.a];

Ultramarine Blue Classic [TA.a.af ];

Ultramarine Blue Dark [BR | KP.p | SI.p];

Ultramarine Blue Deep [BX.o | CR.a(jo) | DS.o | GR.wo | GU | HO.g.o | JO.a | LK | MA.o(artis) | MG | MR.o | OH.a.o.w | ROSS.o | SCH.o.o(Mus).p | SE.o.p | SV | SH.w];

Ultramarine Blue (French) [WL.o];

Ultramarine Blue Greenish Extra [KP.p];

Ultramarine Blue Greenish Light [KP.p | SI.p];

Ultramarine Blue (Green Shade) [LB.o | LQ.a | SE.a | WN.w.wp];

Ultramarine Blue Light [BX.o | BR | HO.g.o | KA.p | KP.p | LK | SCH.o.o(Mus).p | SE.p | SV];

Ultramarine Blue Light (Green Shade) [KA.o];

Ultramarine Blue Medium [GU];

Ultramarine Blue (Primary) [HO.ag];

Ultramarine Blue R2 [GU];

Ultramarine Blue R4 [GU];

Ultramarine Blue R6 [GU];

Ultramarine Blue R8 [GU];

Ultramarine Blue Red Shade [KA.p | LQ.a | RGH.o];

Ultramarine Blue Reddish [KA | SI.p];

Ultramarine Blue RS [RGH.o];

Ultramarine Blue, very dark [KA];

Ultramarine Deep [BX.o | HO.ag.g.o.w.wo | LB.o | LK | MA.g.o.o(artis).o.p.w.w | MR.o | RT.o.w | SE.w | SCH.g| WN];

Ultramarine Finest [SCH.w];

Ultramarine Green [RGH.o];

Ultramarine (Green Shade) [DV | WN.g.o];

Ultramarine Light [HO.ag.g.o.w.wo | LB.o | LK | MA.g.o.o.p.w | RT.o | SCH.g | SE.o.w];

Ultramarine Primary [OH.ag];

Ultramarine Red [GR.o.wo?**];

Ultramarine Violet [GR.o?**];

Victramarine Blue;

Vein Stone

See Lapis Lazuli.

See Ultramarine ash;

Also used in many hues of more expensive pigments (i.e. Cerulean; Cobalt; etc.) alone and In mixtures

77007

Ultramarine Blue can be either the pigment extracted from Lapis Lazuli or the synthetic form polysulfide of sodium, potassium, lithium or silver alumino-silicate** (Reference from Natural Pigments); (Wikipedia Ref); (Webexhibits.org);

Synthetic ultramarine is made by mixing anhydrous sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate with charcoal, clay, rosin, silica, sulfur, and slowly calcined in a reducing atmosphere to 1,380º F (750º C). The various shades of blues, greens, reds and violets are produced by varying heating times and temperatures, mixture proportions, and/or other modifiers. For example Ultramarine Green is the "first product of ignition in the manufacture of Ultramarine blue by the indirect process (Ref Color Index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77013). Synthetic ultramarine blue has particles that rounder, finer and more even in size than the natural ultramarine. (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Materials Database);

Ultra-marine, means ‘from over-seas’ (Ref: Chpt.2 of The Alchemy of Paint - Ultramarine: from over the seas by Spike Bucklow);

Lapis Lazuli (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Art Materials Database);

Ultramarine blue, natural (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Materials Database);

Ultramarine blue, synthetic (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Materials Database);

(Ref: Analysis of natural and artificial ultramarine blue pigments using laser
induced breakdown and pulsed Raman spectroscopy, statistical analysis and
light microscopy, © 2008 Elsevier B.V - PDF);

 

"Since 1828 it is created by fusing together a mixture of kaolin, soda ash, Glauber's salt, sulfur, carbon and kieselguhr. The mixture being fused by heating without air for 7-10 hrs. The resulting Ultramarine Green (PG24) is cooled, then ground and mixed with 7-10% of sulfur, the blue hue develops after heating the mixture for about an hour. The resulting blue colored mass is cooled and washed, then wet ground, levigated and finally ground to a fine powder." (Reference Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77007)

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

French Ultramarine Blue;

Making pigments: Ultramarine at webexhibits.org;

 

Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4 ;

 

Na6-8Al6Si6O24S2-4

 

CAS 1317-97-1;

CAS 57455-37-5

Deep blue, violet to bright bluish green shades;

Usually slightly duller in natural forms, but much duller to grey in poor quality natural forms and ultramarine ash.****

3-4

I

BWS
8;8;8 (CR)

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

25-40

A

MSDS

MSDS

Avoid mixing with chrome yellow

**Although Lapis Lazuli (after purifying) and Ultramarine Blue are essentially the same chemically, Lapis Lazuli is the natural mineral source and has different working properties. Lapis Lazuli is also a much more expensive pigment so it is misleading to label Synthetic PB29 as Lapis Lazuli.

?** there is a possible typo on the Dick Blick site labeling Grumbacher Pre-tested and Max Artists' Oil Color Ultramarine Red and Ultramarine Violet as PB29, according to the Grumbacher site they are PV15 which is the usual designation for Ultramarine Red or Ultramarine Violet.

*** Lime Blue is a "variety of ultramarine" according to Outlines of Paint Technology by Noel Heaton, 1928.

**** the color of ultramarine blue can be varied all the way from a pale greenish blue to reddish blue and on through to violet . The creation of the specific hue desired depends on the ratios of silica and alumina (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008).;

PB30

Copper Carbonate

Ash Blue;

Azul*;

Azul Ceniza;

Azurite*;

Azurite Genuine* [DS.w];

Azurite-deep blue*;

Azurite Greenish Grey Blue*;

Azurium Citramarinum

Azzurro*;

Azzurro di Biadetti;

Bergblau;

Biadetti;

Bice;

Blue Ashes;

Blue Bice2 [GEN | KP.p | NP.p];

Blue Verditer2 [KP.p];

Bremen Blue;

Brunswick Green;

Cenere Blue;

Cendre Blue;

Cendres Bleu;

Cendres Bleues;

Cendres Blue;

Chessylite;

Chessylite Lime Blue;

C.I. Pigment Blue 30;

Copper Blue;

Copper Carbonate;

Lapis Armenius;

Lime Blue;

Mountain Blue;

Neuwied Blue;

Pigment Blue 30;

Sanders Blue;

Verditer;

Verditer Blue [NP.w];

Zuni Blue

see Azurite

77420

Basic copper carbonates: CuCOs.Cu(OH), - Malachite, 2CuC03.Cu(OH), - Azurite;

(Reference: Color Index Chemical Constitutions, 3rd Ed.)

Copper(II)- hydroxide carbonate;

Malachite: occurs naturally. one method of synthetic creation involves precipitating copper sulfate with soda.

Azurite: occurs naturally. The ground mineral is purified by levigating and is sky blue. The synthetic pigment is created by exposing cupric oxide to air.

Blue or Green Verditer or Blue Bice is a highly basic copper carbonate produced by varied methods. it can be made by precipitating copper chloride with lime, then washing the precipitate and reacting with potassium carbonate and lime, or precipitating copper sulfate with calcium chloride and treating with lime. (Reference: Color Index Chemical Constitutions, 3rd Ed.)

*Azurite is the natural mineral.

Making Azurite info at webexhibits.org

CAS 12069-69-1

Bright blue to greenish blue

4

I**

23

B

MSDS

MSDS2

** Lightfast but may be affected by acids and atmospheric Sulfides. May darken or become greenish in oil binders (Reference Natural Pigments).

PB31

Egyptian Blue

Alexandrian blue;

Blue Frit;

Chrysocolla**[KP.p2];

C.I. Pigment Blue 31;

Copper frit;

Cuprorivaite* [KP.p];

Egyptian Blue1 [KP.p | NP.p];

Egyptian Green, copper glass [KP.p];

Egyptian Smalt [OH];

Italian Blue;

Pigment Blue 31;

Pompeian blue;

Pozzuoli blue;

Vestorian blue

see Egyptian Green

77437

Copper Calcium Silicate is the earliest synthetic pigment (Ref Pigment Compendium p.153)

*Cuprorivaite (Mineral Ref) is the rare natural copper silicate;

**Chrysocolla (Mineral Ref) (wikipedia Ref) is the natural hydrated form

Method of making Egyptian Blue at webexhibits.org;

Bright; light blue to blueish green

4

I

22

B

MSDS1

MSDS2

Very transparent in oils, less transparent in other binders.

(Ref & Source)

PB32

Smalt

C.I. Pigment Blue 32;

Couleur;

Dumont's blue;

Enamel Blue;

Émail;

Eschel;

Esmalte;

Pigment Blue 32;

Royal Smalt (superior fine grade) [NP.p.w];

Smalt [KP.p | NP.p | WNd];

Smalt, standard grind [KP.p];

Smalt, very fine grind [KP.p];

Smalte;

Smalt Genuine [DS.w];

Starch Blue

77365

Pulverized and ground potassium glass colored blue by cobalt;

Potassium cobaltous silicate of varying composition (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77365)

How Smalt is made at webexhibits.org

Mid-Blue

4

I*

25

B

MSDS

* Lightfast but may fade due to chemical processes. May not fade if ratio of potassium to cobalt is 1:1 or higher; high potassium smalt available from Natural Pigments

PB33

Manganese Blue

C.I. Pigment Blue 33;

Barium Manganate(VI) sulfate;

Barium Manganese Oxide;

Barium manganosulfate;

Bleu Azural;

Bong’s Blue;

Cement Blue;

Kuhlmann’s Blue;

Manga Blue;

Manganblau;

Manganese Blue [GEN | BX | GB.o | HO.o | KA | LK | OH.a.o.w | RF.e];

Mineral Blue;

Pigment Blue 33;

Turquoise Blue;

77112

Barium Sulphate-Permanganate;

Barium manganate(VI) sulfate, Mixed crystals of 11% Barium Manganate and 89% Barium Sulphate;

CAS 8046-59-1

Greenish blue

†Hue shift towards green may be due to yellowing of binder

3

I

30

C

MSDS

No longer in production; May be affected by sodium and aluminium sulfates (Ref The painter's handbook By Mark David Gottsegen)

PB34

Copper sulfide

C.I. Pigment Blue 34;

Copper Blue;

Copper sulfide;

Covelline Covellite;

Cupric sulfide;

Horace Vernet's Blue;

Indigo Copper;

Oil Blue

77450

77449*

Copper monosulfide;

Copper sulfide;

CAS 1317-40-4

-

-

I

-

B

The natural form is the mineral covellite

* CI 77449 is the black form (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77449)

PB35

Cerulean Blue

Azul Celeste;

Bleu Celeste;

Blue Ceruleum;

Caeruleum;

Cerulean [RF.e];

Cerulean Blue [GEN | AS | DB.o.w | DR.a.w.t | DS.w | GB.o | GR.o.w.wo | HO.a.g.o.w.wo | LB.o | MW.o | OH.a.o.w | RGH.o | RT.o.o.w.wo | SCH.p | SE.a.o.p.w | UT.o.w | WL.o.p | WN.a.g.k.o.wo.w.w.wp];

Cerulean Blue Genuine [ GR.o | MW.o | SE.t | WL.o.p];

Cerulean Blue Light [BR | RGH.o | OH.o.w];

Cerulean Blue Red [HO,o];

Cerulean Blue Reddish [HO.o];

Cerulean Blue Red Shade [HO.o | WN.w.wp];

Cerulean Grey [BX.w];

C.I. Pigment Blue 35;

Cobalt Blue Green [GU];

Cobalt Blue light [KP.p];

Cobalt Cerulean Blue [KP.p | SCH.o.o(Mus).p];

Cobalt Cerulean (blue shade) [KA];

Cobalt Cerulean (green shade) [KA];

Cobalt Tin Blue-Gray Spinel;

Cobalt Tin Grey**;

Cobalt Tin Gray Spinel;

Cobaltous Stannate;

Coelin;

Coelinblau;

Coeruleum [DR.a.o.w.t];

Coerulium;

Genuine Cerulean [CH];

Höpfner Blue;

Manganese Blue Nova?*[HO];

Pigment Blue 35;

True Cerulean Blue [PF.o];

Utrecht 60th Anniversary Cerulean Blue Pure [UT.o];

77368

Cobalt Stannate;

Oxides of Cobalt and Tin;

Originally composed of cobalt stannate. Cerulean blue is made by roasting cobalt and tin oxides.

Sold as an artists pigment in 1860 by Rowney and Company under the name of coeruleum [DR.a.o.w.t];

Cerulean blue (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Art Materials Database);

**Cobalt Tin Grey Co2SnO4 is an inorganic pigment that is the reaction product of calcining a mixture of different amounts of both cobalt (II) oxide and tin (III) oxide. They are homogeneously, ionically entwined forming a crystalline spinel type matrix. The constitution may additionally have Al2O3, Fe2O3, and/or NiO as modifiers that are used to adjust color hue and other properties that may be needed in specific applications. (Ref IPConsortium);

How Cerulean Blue is made at webexibits.org;

CPMA 13-27-2;

CAS 1345-19-3;

CAS 68187-05-3;

CAS 83712-59-8

Light mid to greenish blue, with a grayish cast

1

I

15-25

B

MSDS

* The Holbein tube of Manganese Blue Nova I have in oil paint has the pigment listed as PB35 only, in some of the literature it's a mixture of PB35 and PB15. Considering the price, my guess is it's the mixture (possibly also also including titanium white) and the tube is a typo.

PB36

Cobalt Chromite

Aluminum Chromium Cobalt Bluegreen;

Aluminum Chromium Cobalt Bluegreen Spinel;

Amazon Blue;

Aquamarine;

Atlantic Blue;

Bonnard Blue [SE.o];

Blue 10F545;

Blue 30C527;

Cerulean Blue (hue*) [BX.o.w | CAS.k | CL | DB.a | DS.a.o.w |DV.a.k.w | LK | LQ.a | MA.a.o.o(artis).p.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MT | PF.w | SV];

Cerulean Blue Chromite;

Cerulean Blue Chromium [DS.a.o.w | GRd | UT.a.o.w | WN.a];

Cerulean Blue Chromium Pure [UT.o];

Cerulean Blue Cobalt;

Cerulean Blue Dark (hue*) [GU];

Cerulean Blue Deep (hue*) [GO.a.af | MG.w | OH.a.o.w];

Cerulean Blue French [WL.o.o(SF).p];

Cerulean Blue Genuine (hue*) [DV.a.k.w];

Cerulean Blue Green (hue*) [GU | GRd];

Cerulean Blue GS (hue*) [DSd];

Cerulean Dark (hue*) [GU];

Cerulean Light (hue*) [GU];

Cerulean Medium (hue*) [GU];

C.I. Pigment Blue 36;

Cobalt Blue [MR.o];

Cobalt Blue Greenish [KP.p];

Cobalt Blue, Greenish Light [SI.p];

Cobalt Blue Light [MR.o];

Cobalt Chromite Blue Green Spinel;

Cobalt Blue Turquoise [LB.o | OH.a.o.w | SE.p];

Cobalt Blue Turquoise Dark [KA];

Cobalt Cerulean (hue*) [SCH | KA.o.p];

Cobalt Cerulean (BS) (hue*) [KA.o.p];

Cobalt Cerulean (Blue Shade) (hue*) [KA.p];

Cobalt Cerulean (Green Shade) (hue*) [KA.p];

Cobalt Chromate;

Cobalt Chromite;

Cobalt Chromite Green [GRd];

Blue Green Spinel;

Cobalt Green [CL];

Cobalt Green Deep [ DR.o.w ];

Cobalt Green Turquoise [SCH.w];

Cobalt Titanate Blue [GR.o.wo];

Cobalt Titanate Blue Green [GU];

Cobalt Titanate Blue Red [GU];

Cobalt Turquois [ GO.a.af.ag.ao ];

Cobalt Turquoise [DB.w | DR.w | DS.o.w | DV.a.w | GO.a.af.ag.ao | GR.w | GU | HO.o | LQ.a | MT | RF.e |SE.a.p | SI.p | WN.a.o.w.wp];

Cobalt Turquoise (GS) [ DR.w ];

Cobalt Turquoise (RS) [ DR.w ];

Cobalt Turquoise Blue [RT.o];

Cobalt Turquoise Deep [DV.w | KA.p];

Cobalt Turquoise Bluish [WL.o.p];

Cobalt Turquoise Greenish [WL.o.p];

Cobalt Turquoise Light [KA.p];

Coeruleum Blue (hue*) [BX];

Ercolondo Blue [MA.o(Med)];

Light Blue;

Magnesium Green [GR.o.w];

Midnight Blue [SE];

Olympic Blue No.190;

Pigment Blue 36;

Robinhood Green No.9;

SF Cerulean Blue French [WL.o.o(SF)];

Shepherd Blue;

Shepherd Green;

Teal Green;

Topaz Blue;

True Cobalt Green [PF.o];

Turquoise Blue [BX.o.w | SE];

Turquoise Green [BX.o.w];

77343

Inorganic;

Cobalt Chromite Blue Green Spinel Co(Al,Cr)2O4 is made by calcining at 2400°F a mixture of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Chromium (III) Oxide, and Aluminum (III) Oxide in varied ratios forming a interdiffused crystalline spinel matrix. Its constitution may also include one or more of the modifiers ZnO, MgO, SiO2, TiO2 and/or ZrO2 to adjust color hue or other properties. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel;

Cobaltous Chromium;

Oxides of Cobalt and Aluminum;

Cobalt Aluminum Chromium Oxide;

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Cerulean Blue;

Cobalt Chromite Blue;

Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel (i);

Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel (ii);

Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel (iii);

CPMA 13-29-2;

CAS 68187-11-1

Varying light greenish blues

2

I**

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

15-22

B***

MSDS

MSDS

Very nice blue-green pigment, I personally like it better than PB35 (true Cerulean Blue) which can be dull, Cobalt Chromite (PB 36) is a brighter and "cleaner" color in my opinion.

* PB 36 (Cobalt Chromite Blue-Green Spinel) is often substituted for the historically genuine Cerulean Blue (PB35, Cobalt Stannate) by Colormen, in some cases even claiming it to be "genuine", however C.I. Pigment Blue 36 is not the traditional pigment named Cerulean Blue.

C. I. Pigment Blue 36 (Cobalt Chromite) is usually greener, and brighter than C. I. Pigment Blue 35, with a higher tinting strength.

PB36 (Cobalt Chromite) is said to be a lower cost pigment to manufacture (due it's lower cobalt content). Additionally it's higher tinting strength may also tempt some manufacturers to dilute it with adulterants.

PB36 is a nice color in it's own right, but the cheaper pigment cost should be reflected in the price of any paint made from PB36 and called "Cerulean Blue", unfortunately, it is often priced similar to the genuine Cerulean Blue (PB35) which is a costly pigment.

** Cobalt chromate is used for it's excellent permanency and fastness to weather (Reference: Coatings Technology handbook, Third Edition, Edited by Arthur A. Tracton, 2006 by CRC Press);

*** This pigment is not very soluble in water or solvents, so it stands to reason, that real world risks are quite low for this pigment, even though it contains cobalt. One form called "Blue 10F545" by Shepherd Color Company has even been approved by the FDA for indirect food contact. (Reference @ shepherdcolor.com);

PB36:1

Zinc Cobalt Chrome Aluminum Spinel

Aluminum Chromium Cobalt Zinc Blue;

Aluminum Chromium Cobalt Zinc Blue Spinel;

Cerulean Blue (hue*) [SQ.a | TA.a.af];

Cerulean Blue, Chromium [ GO.a.af.ag.ao];

C.I. Pigment Blue 36:1;

Cobalt Chromite;

Cobalt Zinc Blue [NP.w];

Pigment Blue 36:1;

Zinc Chrome Cobalt Aluminum Spinel;

Zinc Cobalt Chrome Aluminum Spinel

77343:1

Inorganic;

Zinc Cobalt Chrome Aluminum Spinel (Ref at Natural Pigments) is a varied intimate mixture of Zinc (II) Oxide, Chromium (III) Oxide, and Cobalt (II) Oxide calcined at very high temperatures forming an ionically interdiffused crystalline spinel like matrix. MgO, SrO2, TiO2, ZnO and/or ZrO2 may be used as modifiers (Reference: 4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments).;

CPMA 13-53-2;

CAS 74665-01-3

Light bright reddish blue to greenish blue

2

I

55

B

* Pigment Blue 36:1 is often substituted for the historical genuine Cerulean Blue (PB35) by Colormen, however C.I. Pigment Blue 36:1 is not the traditional pigment called Cerulean Blue.

C.I. Pigment Blue 36:1 is often greener and brighter than PB35 with a higher tinting strength.

PB 36: is a lower cost pigment to manufacture due to it's much lower cobalt content.

PB60

Indanthrone Blue

Anthraquinone Blue [GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao | MG.a.o.w | SE.a];

C.I. Pigment Blue 60;

Cromophtal Blue A3R;

Delft Blue [DB.w | SCH.a.g.o(Mus).w.| UT.o];

Dark Blue Indigo (hue) [SCH.g.w];

Faience Blue [MA.o.w];

Gafast Pigment Blue 60;

Indanthren® Blue [KP.p];

Indanthrene Blue [BX.o.w | CAS.k | DR.a.o | DV.w | GR.o | HO.wo | LB.o | LQ.a | MA.a.o(artis) | RT.o.w | SCH.o | SQ.a | WN.a.o.w.wp];

Indanthrone Blue [GEN | BR | DS.a.i.o.w | GB.o | GR.o.wo | LA.a | LK | MW.o];

Indanthrone Blue Green [GU];

Indanthrone Blue Green Xtra [GU];

Indanthrone Blue Red [GU];

Indian Blue;

Indigo Blue (hue) [SE.p];

Indo Blue [GU];

Matisse Indigo [MT];

Old Delft Blue [OH.a.o.w];

Old Delft Blue Deep [OH.a];

Old Holland Delft Blue [OH.o.w];

Paliogen® Blue;

Pigment Blue 60;

Rich Blue [DV.af];

Royal Blue [HO.w];

Vat Blue 4

69800

Indanthrone;

Gafast Pigment Blue 60 (Tech Sheet Reference);

CAS 81-77-6

Dark Reddish blue;

†Fades, Dulls

4

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

37-45

B

MSDS

-

PB61

Modorant Blue R

Alkali Blue;

C.I. Pigment Blue 61;

Modorant Blue R;

Pigment Blue 61;

Reflex Blue;

Reflex Blue A5H-R;

Spirite Blue

42765:1

Sulfonated derivative of Triphenylmethane;

CAS 1324-76-1

Deep Reddish Blue

4

1

45

A

 

PB61:1

Reflex Blue A5L-G

C.I. Pigment Blue 61:1;

Pigment Blue 61:1;

Pigment Radiant Blue;

Reflex Blue A5L-G

-

Sulfonated derivative of Triphenylmethane

Deep Reddish Blue

4

-

-

A

 

PB62

Brilliant Blue CF

Brilliant Blue CF;

C.I. Pigment Blue62;

Flexobrite Blue AD62;

Pigment Blue 62

42595:4

Copper ferrocyanide salt of Triphenylmethane;

CAS 82338-76-9;

CAS 57485-98-0

Reddish blue to mid-Blue

-

II

45

A

 

PB63

Ariabel Blue 11.42

Ariabel Blue 11.42;

C.I. Pigment Blue 63;

Conalake Indigotine;

FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminium Lake;

Indigotine;

Indigo Carmine;

Indigo Carmine Aluminium Lake;

Natural Blue 2;

Pigment Blue 63

73015:1

Synthetic Indigoid Carmine;

CAS 16521-38-3

Bluish red

4

III

-

A

 

PB66

Indigo

C.I. Pigment Blue 66;

FD&C Blue No. 2;

Indian Blue;

Indigo [DB.w | GR.o.w | NP.p1 | SCH.o(Mus).p | UT.o.w*];

Indigo, Genuine Indian [KP.p];

Indigo Lake;

Intense Blue;

Microsol Navy Blue BRN;

Pigment Blue 66;

Synthetic Indigo;

Vat blue 1 [UT.o.w*];

Vitrum

73000

Synthetic Indigo, Indigoid;

How to make the pigment indigo at webexhibits.org;

CAS 482-89-3

Deep Dark Blue

3-4

I*-III?

-

A**

MSDS1

* Utrecht rate their Indigo in oil color and watercolor with their highest grade of light fastness. Schmincke also rate the light fastness very high in oil paint but low in watercolor, and Grumbacher rate theirs as "very good". These ratings suggest method of manufacture or formulation may effect light fastness. Oil binder may provide some protection. Generally the light fastness of indigo is not considered high. I Suggest making your own tests on the paint or pigment you have.

** Natural indigo may be slightly toxic (Ref Dick Blick)

PB68

Fastogen Blue 5007*

C.I. Pigment Blue 68;

Fastogen Blue 5007*;

KET Blue 107?;

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Pigment Blue 15;

Pigment Blue 68

73015?*

Phthalocyanine

Bright greenish blue

-

-

-

A

* Information available on this pigment seems to be conflicting, but it appears that it is the exact same pigment as PB15 or very closely related.

PB71

Zirconium Vanadium Blue

Blue Zircon;

Cerulean Blue Zircon;

Turquoise;

C.I. Pigment Blue 71;

Pigment Blue 71;

Vanadium Blue;

Vanadium Blue Zircon;

Vanadium Zircon Blue;

Vanadium Zirconate;

Vanadium-Zirconium Turquoise;

Zirconium Vanadium Blue Zircon;

Zirconium Cerulean Blue [KP.p];

Zirconium-Spinel Cerulean Blue;

Zirconium Vanadium Blue Zircon;

Zirconium Vanadium Silicate;

77998

Inorganic;

Zirconium Vanadium Blue Zircon (Zr,V)SiO4 is created by calcining at high temperature a mixture of Zirconium (IV) Oxide, Silicon (IV) Oxide, and Vanadium (IV) Oxide in varying ratios to create a zircon form crystalline matrix. Its composition may include less than than 5% of one or a combination of alkali and/or alkaline earth halides as modifiers. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

Patent # US 5252126A (Ref Patent Info)

CPMA 14-42-2

CAS 68186-95-8

Light blue, greenish undertone

2

I

-

A

Said to be a good non-toxic Cerulean Blue substitute.

Most often used as pigment for ceramics, but has good potential as a artists paint . (Ref Google Search)

A example of Zirconium Vanadium Blue (PB71) hand mulled into an paint from Perry Johnson at http://perryjohnson.net

PB72

Cobalt Zinc Aluminate Blue

Aluminum Cobalt Zinc Blue;

Aluminum Cobalt Zinc Blue Spinel;

C.I. Pigment Blue 72;

Cobalt Blue [DB.o | SE.o.os.p];

Cobalt Blue Deep [DR];

Cobalt Blue Genuine [SE.o.t];

Cobalt Zinc Aluminate Blue Spinel;

Pigment Blue 72

77347

Inorganic;

Cobalt Zinc Aluminate Blue Spinel (Co,Zn)Al2O4 is produced by calcining at high temperature a intimate mixture of Cobalt (II) Oxide, Zinc (II) Oxide, and Aluminum (III) Oxide in varied ratios forming a crystalline spinel like matrix . It may include any one or more of the modifiers Li2O, MgO, SiO2, SnO and/or TiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

Cobalt Zinc Aluminate;

Cobalt Zinc Aluminate Spinel;

Zinc aluminocobaltite;

CPMA 13-28-2

CAS 68186-87-8

Deep blue, dark in masstone, but bright in tints

3

I

25

B

-

PB73

Cobalt Silicate Blue

C.I. Pigment Blue 73;

Cobalt Blue Deep [DR.w | WN.a];

Cobalt Silicate Blue Olivine;

Smalt Blue;

Pigment Blue 73

77364

Inorganic;

Cobalt Silicate Blue Olivine Co2SiO4 is made by high temperature calcination of a mixture of the oxides of cobalt and silicon in varied quantities to form a olivine crystalline matrix. It may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, B2O3 or ZnO. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

Cobalt Orthosilicate;

Cobalt Silicate;

CPMA 5-08-2 (4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments)

CAS 68187-40-6

Deep Reddish navy

4

I

15-40

B

MSDS

-

PB74

Cobalt Zinc Silicate Blue

C.I. Pigment Blue 74;

Cobalt Zinc Silicate;

Cobalt Zinc Silicate Blue Phenacite;

Sapphire Blue;

Cobalt Blue Dark [BX.o.w | KP.p];

Cobalt Blue Deep [AS | SQ.a | OH.a.o.w | RT.o | SCH.g.o.o(Mus).p | SE.p | WN.o.w.wp];

Pigment Blue 74

77366

Cobalt Zinc Silicate Blue Phenacite (Co,Zn)2SiO4 is obtained by the calcining a mixture of cobalt oxide, zinc oxide and silicon oxides in varied ratios to make a phenacite crystalline matrix. It may include B2O3 as a modifier. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

CAS 68412-74-8

Deep or dark mid-shade to reddish blue

3

1

16

B

MSDS

-

PB75

Chromofine Blue 5000P

Chromofine Blue 5000P;

Chromofine Blue 5000PK;

C.I. Pigment Blue 75;

Cobalt Phthalocyanine Blue;

Cobaltous Phthalocyanine;

Pigment Blue 75

74160:2

Phthalocyanine cobalt complex;

CAS 3317-67-7

Deep red shade blue

-

I

-

A

Unique blue shade

PB76

Fastogen Blue 10GN

C.I. Pigment Blue 76;

Decachlor Blue;

Diane Blue;

Fastogen Blue 10GN;

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Pigment Blue 76

-

Phthalocyanine;

CAS 68987-63-3

Turquoise blue shade

-

I

-

A

"A novel pigment type only recently assigned a Colour Index Name by the Colour Index International. Described as a "decachlor" blue, this product is half way between a blue and a green in that if offers the user a unique turquoise shade" Ref "Sun Chemical Corporation Pigments Division", Ink World, March, 2000

PB79

Aluminum Chloro-phthalocyanine

Aluminum Chlorophthalocyanine;

Aluminum Chlorophthalocyanine SNCG;

C.I. Pigment Blue 79;

Phthalocyanine Blue;

Pigment Blue 79

761300

Phthalocyanine; Aluminum Chlorophthalocyanine;

CAS 14154-42-8

Greenish blue

-

I

-

A

A copper free alternate to copper phthalocyanine blue

PB80

Hostaperm Blue R5R

Benzi Blue;

C.I. Pigment Blue 80;

Hostaperm Blue R5R

Pigment Blue 80

-

Chloranil --> N-ethyl

Benzimidazolone;

Benzimidazolone Dioxazine;

CAS 391663-82-4

deep reddish blue

-

I

-

-

-

PB81

Cobalt Tin Alumina Blue Spinel

Aluminum Cobalt Tin Blue;

Aluminum Cobalt Tin Blue Spinel;

C.I. Pigment Blue 81;

Cobalt Tin Alumina Blue Spinel;

Pigment Blue 81;

773465

Inorganic;

Cobalt Tin Alumina Blue Spinel CoA12O4/Co2SnO4, can be created by calcining Aluminum (III) Oxide, Cobalt (II) Oxide, and Tin (IV) Oxide in varied ratios that creates a reaction in which a spinel crystalline matrix is formed. The pigment creation can be modified by one or both of the modifiers SiO2 and/or ZnO;

CPMA 13-49-2;

CAS 68608-09-3

Blue

-

-

-

-

-

PB82

MayaCrom Blue B2050

C.I. Pigment Blue 82;

Maya Blue [NP.p];

MayaCrom Blue B2050;

MayaCrom Blue B2000F;

Mayan Dark Blue [DS.w];

Pigment Blue 82

-

Patented Organic-Inorganic hybred based on the chemistry of Mayan Blue with a unique nano crystal lattice. Reference the Tech data sheet, and Patent application.;

Article about Hybred Pigments and Mayan Blue in New Journal of Chemistry 2005, 29, p.57–58 (Article Reference PDF);

Greenish Blue

-

I

65

A

MSDS

"evolved from work done at the University of Texas-El Paso to reconstruct the unique vibrant blue color developed by the Maya civilization more than 1000 years ago, using an inorganic and organic component to produce a highly stable hybrid pigment."

- TOR Minerals International Press release; (Ref Mayan Pigments, Inc.); (Ref Science Daily); (Ref);

PB84

MayaPure Blue B 8000F

C.I. Pigment Blue 84;

MayaPure Blue B 8000F;

Pigment Blue 84

-

Patented Organic- Inorganic hybred based on the chemistry of Mayan Blue, Reference the Patent application.;

Article about Hybred Pigments and Mayan Blue in New Journal of Chemistry 2005, 29, p.57–58 (Article Reference PDF);

Greenish Blue

-

II

65

A

MSDS

New pigment based on Mayan Blue (see above) (Ref), (Ref Mayan Pigments, Inc.);

PB128

Basalt

Basalt;

C.I. Pigment Blue 128;

China Black;

Lava;

Noire;

Noir de Mazy;

Pigment Blue 128

77428

Cooled Lava Rock

Gray to Blue to Black

-

I

13

A

-


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PAINT AND PIGMENT REFERANCE TABLE KEY:    Page Top^
Jump to : Supplier\Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes

Opacity

1 = opaque
4 = trans.

Light
Fastness

I = excel.
IV=Fugitive

Toxic


Color Index Generic Name:
  Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is the C.I. Generic Name (abbreviated) given by the ASTM and Colour Index International (CII) for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments
These are naturally occurring organic pigments and dyes. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments (i.e. Madder Lake). A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth (Van Dyke Brown). They are designated with C.I. Generic name of which consists of the usage class "Natural" and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Natural Brown 8). Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. NBr 8)
  Pigment
Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. They can be completely synthetic, naturally occurring minerals, or lakes based on the synthetic derivatives of natural dyes. Pigments are designated with C.I. Generic name which consists of the usage class "Pigment" and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Pigment Red 106, Cadmium Red). The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. PR83 for Pigment Red 83)

 

NY = Natural Yellow;
NO = Natural Orange;
NR = Natural Red;
NV = Natural Violet;
NB = Natural Blue;
NG = Natural Green;
NBr = Natural Brown;
NBk = Natural Black;
NW = Natural White;

 

 

PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal

 

The CI (Color Index) Common Pigment Name:   Key Top ^ Page Top^
In this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997) by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials.

When the Colour Index (3rd edition) has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research.


Common, Historic and Marketing Names:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books & references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected (in order of importance) from

1.) Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers and/or other pigment supplier literature;

2.) Various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufactures and pigment manufacturers;.

3.) The Color Index, Third edition (published by the Colour Index International, 1997);

4.) Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms (see Free Art e-Books);

5.) Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works);

6.) Various dictionaries and encyclopedias (both historic and contemporary).

 

(hue):
When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the "(hue)"* in parenthesis. For example calling\naming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as "Azure", "Smalt" or "Cobalt Blue".

*In order to stay within ASTM specification D 4302-05, manufactures are encouraged to use the word "hue" when the paint or pigment marketing name is not the real name of a paint or a pigment. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage (often perpetrated by manufacturer's incorrect color marketing names), and last but not least - the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paint\pigment, it's nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive.

 

C.I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number (chemical composition):   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the "Colour Index Constitution Number" has a specific chemical or compositional meaning; for more information see the Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites (these links open in a new window)..

Chemical Composition:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.
Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, and\or drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i.e. the Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens.
These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label.

Color Description:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this (such as the Munsell system), but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1997), I have used that description, when there is no color hue description in the Color Index, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

† = Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.

Fades = Becomes more Transparent
Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;
Whitens = Becomes lighter towards white and more opaque;
Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;
Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral but maintains the relative tone;  
Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  
Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Opacity - Transparency:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This designation is only a general reference to the most common encountered opacity or transparency inherit to the pigment. In paints, the transparency of a pigment can change due to what is used as the painting medium or binder (i.e., oil color, watercolor, encaustic, acrylic, etc.). There are many pigments that are opaque in watercolor but transparent or semi-transparent in oil paints. The transparency of a paint or pigment can often be manipulated by the manufacturing process for a particular purpose. The addition of inert pigments or other modifiers can also change the perceived transparency of a paint formulation or pigment.
When available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. When the Color Index description is unavailable i have arrived at a general figure by manufacturer literature or personal experience. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.
 
1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

The light fastness rating can only be a general guide, when available, i have used the ASTM rating or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and I believe will no longer be rating pigments. For that reason the rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lightfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. Very often, pigments in tints are less light fast and this should be taken into account when determining if a pigment or paint will meet your needs. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following: (ASTM D4303 - 10, Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials, or ASTM D01.57, the Subcommittee on Artists' Materials doc here, opens new window); or this (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window). Blue Wool Scale will be given when known, but be aware that these may be from tests on a single formulation, and may not be the same for all brands or binders.
 
I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor (may last many years in museum conditions, but should be used with caution for permanent works of art)
IV = Fugitive/Very Poor

 

BWS = Blue wool scale

7-8 = Excellent,
6 = Very Good,
4-5
= Fair (Impermanent),
2-3 Poor (fugitive),
1
= Very Poor (fugitive)*

*When known, blue wool scale ratings will be given for tints in the following format: Full;1/2 tint/;1/4 tint (i.e. Cadmium Red would be 8;8;8 with excellent light fastness in all tints). Note: these may from tests on a single formulation or pigment brand, and may not be valid for other brands or binders.

 

Oil Absorption: is given in g/100g or grams of oil per 100 grams of pigment   Key Top ^ Page Top^
or as H, M, L (see below)

The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works). The higher the oil absorption, generally, the longer it will take to dry when used in oil painting. The addition of driers, siccatives, retardants and other additives can effect the drying time of any specific formulation, or they can be added by the artist to speed up or slow down the drying of oil paints. In some literature the oil absorption rate is given as ml/100g, although not technically the same as g/100g, for the purposes of this database they are close enough.

Depending on the specifications i have available I may also use the following designations:
H = High;   - These pigments absorb a lot of oil.
M = Medium;    - Average drying or cure rate
L = Low;    - Usually very fast driers

Toxicity:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

Under this heading will be a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, art books and art reference works (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), MSDS sheets, the EPA manual: Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans (full PDF here), The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), The Health and the Arts Program - Great Lakes Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH), The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works has a collection of articles on art safety, The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB) and Art Materials Business Guidance

All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but, if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous pigments can be used safely. Very few pigments used in the arts are edible, and even so called "Food Colors" are not meant to be used in large quantities and may have unknown side effects or allergic reactions.

WARNING: Always use a dust mask when working with any dry pigments. Work in a separate area of your studio away from children, pets or other living things. Do not smoke, eat or drink around any art materials. Dispose of all waste materials in an environmentally safe way.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible hazard if carelessly handled, ingested in large amounts or over long periods of time;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling toxic substances; 
D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with these pigments (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window); or the PDF - Booklet Safe Handling of Colour Pigments Copyright © 1995: BCMA, EPSOM, ETAD, VdMI - link from VdMI


The Side Notes Column:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. Please remember that they are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided for further info.

Miscellaneous:

(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the reference source of the information that I have given, or just a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable references, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****   Key Top ^ Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
The manufacturer code is to indicate companies that make or supply paints or pigments using the particular pigment. Only those products that are single pigments will be indicated in this database. In a few cases, the Color Index International has listed a mixture of pigments or chemicals under a single color index pigment name or code, and these will also be designated as if they were a single pigment. The codes next to the pigments in above Color of Art Database may take you off sight where you can find more info or even purchase, if you so desire. These codes are not part of any standard, but were made up by me for this database, with purpose of making them as short as possible.
The links below next to the manufacturer code below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window.

DG = Daniel Green

EP = Earth Pigments

GB = Gamblin

GEN = Common Generic term

GO = Golden

GR = Grumbacher

GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment

HO = Holbien

JO = Jo Sonja

KA = Kama Pigments

KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)


Paint medium or binder code:  Key Top ^ Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All other art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint, heavy body;

ab = Acrylic Airbrush colors;

ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions;

af = Fluid Acrylics;

ag = Matte Acrylic or Acrylic Gouache;

ao = open acrylics or slow drying

k = Alkyd paints;

c = Casein or milk paint;

d = Discontinued

e = Encaustic paints;

g = Traditional water color Gouache;

i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);

o = Oil Paint;

p = Dry Pigment;

t = Artist Professional Tempera or Egg Tempera;

w = Watercolor Paint in tubes;

wp = Watercolor Pan; wp = 1/2 pan, wp(f) = full pan, wp(L) = large pan

wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

 

am = Acrylic medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

om = Oil painting Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

wm = Watercolor Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

GEN = Where there is a generally accepted common historic name associated with a pigment, I have used "GEN" to denote the generic or common historical name of a particular pigment.


Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.

 


©2013 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:  
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the
Free Art Books Page.

  1. The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
    By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
  2. The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
    By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
  3. The Science of Painting,
    By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
  4. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
  5. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
  6. The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
    By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
  7. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
    By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
  8. A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
    By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
  9. The Household Cyclopedia,
    By Henry Hartshorne 1881
  10. The Chemistry of Pigments,
    By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
  11. Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
    By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
  12. The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
    By DR. JOSEF BERSCH, translated by CHARLES SALTER,SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON , 1921 Link
  13. Materials for Permanent Painting,
    By Maximilian Toch 1911

 

Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:

  1. The Artist’s Handbook,
    by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
  2. The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
    Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
  3. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
    Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
  4. Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Robert L. Feller
  5. Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
  6. Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
  7. Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
  8. Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
    Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
    The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
  10. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
    Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
  11. The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
    by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
  12. The Painter's Handbook,
    Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
  13. Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
    by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
  14. Pigment Compendium,
    by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004

 

 

Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:

  1. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):

    National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

  2. AMIEN:
    a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
  3. Blick Art Materials;
    has done a extremely thorough job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
    Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
    for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuable resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
  4. Coloria.net,
    a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish http://www.coloria.net/index.htm
  5. Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
    developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
  6. Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
    A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
  7. The Handprint,com;
    site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
  8. Webexhibits.org;
    Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
  9. The Real Color Wheel;
    by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
  10. Studiomara;
    has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
  11. Health and Safety in the Arts;
    A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
  12. Household Products Database;
    Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
  13. Natural Pigments:
    One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
  14. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
  15. Paintmaking.com: By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
  16. PCImag.com; Paint & Coatings Indusry
        2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
  17. Dick Blick Artist Supply:
    Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
  18. Kremer Pigmente EuropeKremer Pigments USA site;
    Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
  19. Earth Pigments:
    Specializes in earth pigments.
  20. Guerra Paint and Pigments:
    Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
  21. Sinopia:
    Lots of Pigments & info

Health and Safety in the Arts References and Info:

  1. Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  2. Art Materials Business Guidance
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  3. Art Safety
    Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
  4. Artist Safety
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
  5. Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
    U. S. Environment Protection Agency
  6. Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
    Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
  7. Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
    CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
  8. Health and Safety Guides and Publications
    American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
  9. Art Safety
    Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
  10. Health and the Arts Program
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  11. Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  12. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
    New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
  13. Studio Safety
    Gamblin Artists Colors

 

 

*other ASTM specifications used the the labeling of artists materials are:

 

D4236-94(2011) Standard Practice for Labeling Art Materials for Chronic Health Hazards

D4302-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Oil, Resin-Oil, and Alkyd Paints

D4303-10 Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials

D4838-88(2010) Standard Test Method for Determining the Relative Tinting Strength of Chromatic Paints

D4941-06(2010) Standard Practice for Preparing Drawdowns of Artists' Paste Paints

D5067-05(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Watercolor Paints

D5098-05a(2010) Standard Specification for Artists' Acrylic Dispersion Paints

D5383-02(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists

D5398-97(2010) Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by the User

D5517-07 Standard Test Method for Determining Extractability of Metals from Art Materials
See also WK41263 proposed revision

D5724-06(2010) Standard Specification for Gouache Paints

D6801-07 Standard Test Method for Measuring Maximum Spontaneous Heating Temperature of Art and Other Materials

D6901-06 Standard Specification for Artists' Colored Pencils
See also WK27266 proposed revision

D7354-11 Standard Guide for Artists’ Paint Waste Disposal in Private, Non-Commercial Settings

D7355-10 Standard Guide for Artists' Paint Waste Disposal in Smaller Commercial or Educational Settings

D7733-12 Standard Specification for Acrylic Dispersion Ground

WK28388 New Specification for Traditional Artists Watercolor Paints
WK37409 New Test Method for Measuring Aspiration Potential of Aerosol Products
WK37916 New Specification for Standard Specification for Artists Pastels

 

I hope you you have found the Pigment Database useful info for oil painting and watercolor painting, acrylic painting or indeed any painting medium; I have tried to make this a good resource for the fine arts, that has the important information on toxicity of paint and art materials including the hazards of some craft materials used by decorators, interior designers, illustration and graphic designer;

 

© 2013 by David Myers all rights reserved

 

 

 

 


This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database was designed for C.I. Pigment Red.

CI Pigment Red is indicated with the pigment code "Pigment Red" followed by the color index international's pigment identification code number or pigment ID number. The full color index name or generic pigment name is usually shortened to the Color Index code which for pigment Red is "PR" plus the color index # (after the "PR" pigment Red code designation there is the Color index identifying number code for the specific pigment, i.e. "PR 83" or "PR 101"). All artist paints and pigments that are ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials) and ASTM D4236 - 94* compliant that are sold in the United States must have the pigment identification number or generic chemical names of the Red pigments that were used to make the Red paints or dry pigments (either powdered pigments or in the commonly found "pigment dispersions") and should be have the generic pigment name printed on the paint label. The "Red oil paint" tube or "Red oil color" paint label, along with the label on tubes of acrylic paints, and on the label on tubes of watercolor even when found as pans, half-pans or dry cakes and often sold as a complete color palette or "watercolor set", will have the pigment or pigments index name on the label, or printed directly on the paint tube.

This color database is a also a great pigment reference made for DIY artist's and artisans that make their own paints with raw pigments and grind or mull the pigments into homemade paints giving them complete control over the paints grind, texture, and color. Making your own paints (paint making) by mulling the pigment in with a binding medium can be a rewarding and fun creative experience. The artist is involved in the process of creation, from the beginning with only the raw dry pigments and proceeding on to grinding pigments with a binding media (usually shortened to "binder"). For making oil paints, linseed oil is the most common binder (or medium). Walnut oil is also common oil used in making oil colors in the art studio and is less yellowing than linseed oil, There are other less common drying oils and some new alkyd resins the are sometimes used in making oil colors in the studio. Making (or grinding) watercolor paint is also fun and easy. The most common formula for making homemade watercolors is mostly water with some dissolved gum arabic (the glue that holds the paint together when dry). Honey and glycerin are common additives used in varying proportions to adjust the drying time and re-wetability of the dried watercolor. See the Art is Creation Recipe page for more info and paint making or grinding medium recipes. Egg-oil tempera and other media can be made in the art studio by DIY artists and it is creative and fun to make your very own paints. It is a very rewarded creative experience to grinding (mulling) your own paints and then finally making a painting or work of art, all entirely created by the artist themselves from start to finish.

The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has the resources and info on pigments used for artist paint, student paints, Oil color including:

  • Oil Paints
  • Watercolors
  • Acrylic Paint
  • Pigments used in making paint
  • Dry Pigments and Powders
  • Aqueous Pigment Dispersions
  • Fluid Acrylics
  • Airbrush Paint
  • Acrylic Gouache
  • Matte Acrylic Paints
  • Acrylic Vinyl
  • Acyclic paint or Alkyd Oils
  • Casein or Milk Paint
  • Encaustic painting
  • Gouache
  • Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks
  • Oil sticks or Oil Bars
  • Oil Base Pigment Stick
  • Tempera or Egg Tempera
  • Watercolor Sticks
  • Watercolor Pigment Sticks or Bars
  • Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint