PBk Black Pigments The Color of Art Pigment Database: Pigment Black, PBk

Artist's Paint and Pigments Reference: Color Index Names, Color index Number and Pigment Chemical Composition

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Pigment Black PBk Black Pigments
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Jump to CI Pigment Black Number:
Natural Black: NBk 1, NBk 2, NBk 3, NBk 4, NBk 6,
Pigment Black: PBk 1, PBk 6, PBk 7, PBk 8, PBk 9, PBk 10, PBk 11, PBk 12, PBk 13, PBk 14, PG 17 Blk, PBk 17, PBk 18, PBk 19, PBk 22, PBk 23, PBk 24, PBk 25, PBk 26, PBk 27, PBk 28, PBk 29, PBk 30, PBk 31, PBk 32, PBk 33, PBk 34, PBk 35,
Miscellaneous Pigments: Acetylene Black; Antimony Black; Black Earth; Black Hematite; Black Tourmaline; Cobaltic Oxide; Cuprous Sulfide; Hartshorn Black; Ivory Black; Lead Sulphide; Micaceous Iron Oxide; Magnetite Pyrolusite; Shungite,

Where applicable, you can click on the artist paint or pigment company code found in the "Common Historic and Marketing Name Column" next to the pigments name. The links will take off site where you can find more specific paint, binder, and pigment properties, including MSDS sheets or a retailer that stocks that brand of paint or pigment. Just hit your back button to return. See the Key at the bottom of any page for the artist media or binder company codes and links to the brands websites. NOTE: d in italics indicates a discontinued paint or pigment, all other medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment/paint is in the student grade, not the "artist's" professional premium paint. See the Key (at the bottom of the page) for artist media and binder codes.

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Historic Black Pigments Historic Black Pigments without Color Index Names
Historic Black Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Black  |  CI Pigment Black  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

N/A

Acetylene Black

Acetylene Black;

Carbon Black;

DENKA BXACK;

Nero di Acetilene;

Shawinigan Acetylene Black;

Thermal black;

N/A

*Acetylene black-A particularly pure form of carbon black pigment, made by the controlled decomposition of Acetylene. Characterized by the highest degree of aggregation and

crystalline orientation when compared with all other carbon blacks (Ref);

(Ref Boston Fine Arts)

 

CAS 1333-86-4

Black

-

I

H

A

-

N/A

Antimony Black

Antimony Black;

Antimony Orange;

Antimony Red;

Antimony Vermilion;

Antimony Sulfide;

Hermus Mineral;

Kohl;

Stibium;

Stibnite;

 

See Pigment Red 107

N/A

The black natural form of Antimony Trisulfide, powdered Stibnite. (Ref: at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Materials Database);

Black

-

-

-

D

MSDS

-

N/A

Black Earth

Black Earth;

Black Ochre;

Black Oxide;

Black Iron Oxide;

German Vine Black [NP.p];

Jacobsite;

Magnetite;

Manganese Black;

Manganese Grey;

Mineral Brown Black (Pyrolusite) [NP.p];

Natural Black Earth [SI.p];

Natural Black Oxide [NP.p];;

Prussian Black;

Pyrolusite;

Roman Black [NP.p];

Shungite [NP.p];

Vine Black;

Wad

77268

Natural dark earth pigment of varying composition. There are varieties composed of Iron Oxide and Magnetite, Earths with high carbon content like Shungite, minerals like iron manganese oxide known as Jacobsite and Pyrolusite, or other manganese rich soils similar to Wad; (Ref Natural Pigments);, (Pigment Compendium, Ref); (Ref Natural Black Oxide Natural Pigments).

Blackish brown to blue gray*

1-4*

I

15-?*

A*

* varies by composition

 

N/A

Black Hematite

Black Hematite;

Black Iron Ore;

Bloodstone;

Bloodstone Genuine [DS.o.w*];

Iron Black;

Hematite [DS.o*];

Psilomelane

 

N/A

Natural Black Iron Oxide (Ref)

Violet Red or Silvery Black

-

I

-

A

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.

N/A

Black Tourmaline

Black Tourmaline Genuine [DS.w*];

Black Tourmaline;

Genuine Black Tourmaline;

Schorl;

Tourmaline

 

N/A

Semi-precious stone composed of a complex crystalline silicate comprised of aluminum, boron, iron and magnesium along with other elements; (Ref), (Ref), (Ref)

Blueish to Greenish black

4

I

-

A

* more info on the Dan Smith PrimaTek™ artist paints and other minerals used for art pigments at the watercolor Handprint.com site.

N/A

Cobaltic Oxide

Cobalt Black;

Cobaltic Oxide;

Cobaltic Oxide Black;

77323

Cobaltic Oxide

-

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Cuprous Sulfide

Cuprous Sulfide

77449

Cuprous Sulfide

-

-

-

-

-

-

N/A

Hartshorn Black

Hartshorn Black

N/A

Horn of Hartshorn (male red deer) calcined without exposure to oxygen

Black

2

I

M-H

A

Similar to Bone Black or Ivory Black

N/A

Ivory Black

Ivory Black

N/A

Calcined elephant tusks (ivory);

Ivory Black (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

 

Bluish Black, yellow undertone

2

I

50

A

Substituted with bone black in modern paints

N/A

Lead Sulphide

Galena;

Lead Sulphide

N/A

Lead Sulphide

Black-grey

1

I

L

C

Often a unwanted reaction of lead white with sulfides

N/A Micaceous Iron Oxide

Micaceous hematite;

Micaceous iron oxide [EN.wax | GO.a.af | TA.a.af ];

MIO;

Natural lamellar hematite;

Natural specular hematite ore;

Specular iron oxide;

N/A

A naturally occurring lamellar form of ferrous oxide (Ref: Micaceous Iron Oxide from reade.com);

 

Crystalline Fe203

Metallic grey 2 I - A

Used as a metallic grey color in artist paints.

Used as a barrier paint coating to inhibit rust and weather corrosion for more than 100 years (Ref: Micaceous Iron Oxide from reade.com);

N/A

Magnetite

Brown Oxide [KA];

Brown Oxide Medium [GU];

Brown Ochre Goethite [DV.o];

Dark Goethite [DV.o];

Ferric oxide;

Goethite**;

Goethite Genuine [DV.o];

Iron Oxide Brown;

Iron Oxide Hydroxide;

Iron Oxide Hydroxide Brown;

Lodestone;

Magnetite;

Magnetite Genuine [DV.o**];

Magnetic Iron Ore;

Pigment Black 11;

Pigment Brown 6;

Rhombehedral Magnetite;

 

77491

77492

77499

Inorganic; Natural Ferric oxide and Ferro so-ferric hydroxide;

 

**Magnetite is the natural form of PB11 (mindat.com Ref); (Webmineral.com Ref)

 

CAS 1309-38-2;

CAS 52357-70-7;

CAS 12227-89-3

Very dark brown to grey or black with a metallic sheen

1-3

I

28-43

A

* Oil paints and watercolors using PBr6 and PBk11 exist in almost any shade of red and violet brown to black, Magnetite is usually a metallic black or deep grey.

 

** {Ref at Mindat.org}

 

The Preparation of Magnetite, goethite, hematite and maghemite of pigment quality from mill scale iron waste.

 

N/A

Pyrolusite

Manganese Oxide;

Mineral Brown Black [p]

N/A

Manganese Oxide with other manganese salts and impurities (Ref), (Ref);

Reddish Brown To bluish black to steel gray

-

I

M

B

Speeds drying in oil paint (Ref)

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Natural Pigment Black NBk Natural Black - Color Index Name: NBk
Historic Black Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Black  |  CI Pigment Black  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

NBk1

Logwood Lake

C.I. Natural Black 1;

Log Wood Extract [KA.p];

Logwood [NP.p];

Logwood Extract Powder [KP.p];

Logwood Lake

Natural Black 1

75290

 

Logwood Dye precipitated with various inert pigments to form a lake;

Hematoxylin (leuco form);

Hematein (oxidized form)

 

CAS 8005-33-2

Brown to reddish-brown, black to blue-black

4

IV

-

A*

MSDS

Reddish brown turns blue-black in presence of alkalis

 

*ingesting large amounts can be poisonous

NBk2

Logwood Black Lake

C.I. Natural Black 2;

Lakka;

Logwood Black Lake;

Natural Black 2

Sinipuu-uute

75291

Hematoxylin oxidized to Hematein

Blue-purple black

-

-

-

A*

*ingesting large amounts can be poisonous

NBk3

Logwood

C.I. Natural Black 3;

Logwood extract;

Logwood Lake;

Natural Black 3;

Sinipuu-uute

75291

Hematoxylin oxidized to Hematein (Ref), (Ref)

Blue-purple black

-

-

-

A*

*ingesting large amounts can be poisonous

NBk4

Logwood

C.I. Natural Black 4;

Logwood Lake;

Natural Black 4;

Sinipuu-uute

75290

75291

Hematoxylin oxidized to Hematein (Ref)

 

CAS 8005-33-2

Blue-purple black

-

-

-

A*

*ingesting large amounts can be poisonous

NBk6

Asphaltum

Alfalto (It.);

Antwerp Braun;

Antwerp Brown;

Asfalt (Ned.);

Asfalto (Port.);

Asphalt paint;

Asfalto (Port.,Esp.);

Asfaltos (Gr.);

Asphalte (Fr.);

Asphaltum [KP.p];

Asphaltite;

Bitume (It.);

Bitumen** [ KA.ad.o.p | MA.o(artis) | MR.o];

Bitumen of Judea;

C.I. Natural Black 6;

Brown

Erdpech;

Gilsonite;

Gilsonite (Asphaltum) [NP.p];

Goudron;

Jew's Pitch;

Mineral Pitch;

Natural Black 6;

Pissasphaltum;

Shilajit;

Uintaite;

-

The natural form of a resinous hydrocarbon similar to petroleum asphalt; (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008);

Asphaltum is defined by Child (per 1995) as different from petroleum asphalt. 'Asphaltum' being defined as the naturally occurring material (Nbk6), and the term 'asphalt' meaning those products derived from of coal tar. (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.32);

(Mindat.org Mineral Ref);

(Ref Natural Pigments);

(Ref: The Manufacture of Varnishes and Kindred Industries: Vol. 2, 1908 By Achille Livache);

(Asphaltum Ref at Boston Fine Arts, CAMEO: Conservation & Art Materials Encyclopedia Online);

(Bitumen Ref at Boston Fine Arts, CAMEO: Conservation & Art Materials Encyclopedia Online);

(Ref: Asphaltum: Bitumen - Mineral Pitch - Antwerp Brown - Mummy - Mumie section of The Chemistry of Paints and Painting, By Arthur Herbert Church)
More Info on the free art e-books page.

Dark blackish red-brown with a yellow undertone

4

III?*

N/A

A

Usually substituted with more permanent earth colors or iron oxides in artist paints.;

 

Although dark brown in color and sometimes confused with PBr6, Asphaltum is Color index Natural Black 6.;

 

?* Unrated by ASTM, Asphaltum is reportedly light fast when used as oil color but has problems with shrinkage and cracking: see Wetcanvas.com Thread (Ref).;

 

Reportedly the oil paint never dries and causes "dripping" (Ref:Color: A Natural History of the Palette, By Victoria Finlay, ©2002, p.104);

 

Highly refined asphaltum may be more stable when used in oilcolors. (Ref: Natural Pigments).

 

** Bitumen is actually a range of compounds described in the Pigment Compendium, 2008 as 'a complex group of synthetic or natural, solid or high viscosity mixtures of hydrocarbons and volatile substances, that include the asphalts'.

In an artistic sense, as a pigment , it most often refers to Asphaltum, but has also been used as a name for humic earths (eg. Cassel Earth, Van Dyke Brown) and lignites. (Reference Pigment Compendium, 2008)

Color Index Pigment Black PBk CI Pigment Black
Historic Black Pigments Without C.I. Names  |  CI Natural Black  |  CI Pigment Black  | KEYPage Top^

Color Index Generic Name
CI Common or Historical Name
Common, Historic and
Marketing Names
C.I.
Constitution Number
Chemical Composition
Color Description
† = Long Term Effects of Light
Opacity
1 = opaque
4 = trans.
Light
Fastness
I = excell.
IV=Fugitive

Oil Absorption
g/100g
Toxic
Side Notes

PBk1

Aniline Black

Aniline Black [WNd];

Black #1;

Black Aniline;

Black Lake [SE.p];

C.I. Pigment Black 1;

Diamond Black;

Intense Black [SE.a];

Jet Black [DR.g | HO.ag.g | WN.g];

Paliotol Black;

Peach Black [HO.w];

Pigment Black 1

50440

Azine;

CAS 13007-86-8

Black

-

III?*

-

-

?*ASTM rated fugitive,

"As a clothing dye, it has been reported to have excellent lightfastness" Dick Blick site (Ref).

PBk6

Carbon Black

Antique Black [HO.w];

Black [DV];

Blacking;

Blue Black [SCH.w | WN];

Carbon Black [DV.af];

Carbon Black Lamp Black;

Charcoal Grey [GR.w];

C.I. Pigment Black 6;

Gas Black;

Gas Soot;

Ivory Black [DV.k.o];

Ivory Black Hue [DV.k.o];

Kohlenschwarz;

Lamp Black [AS | BX.w | DB.w | DR | DS.a.i.o.p.w | DV.a.k..o.w | GR.o.w.wo | HO.o.w | MG.a.g.o.w | RT.w | UT.w | WL.o.p | WN.a.k.o.wo.w.w.wp];

Negro de carbon;

Nero Carbon;

Noir de Charbon;

Pigment Black 6;

Thermal Black;

Thermatomic Black;

Vegetable Black W9823;

Velvet Black

77266

Inorganic;

Almost pure carbon (Ref: Color Index, Pigment and Solvent Dyes Edition, 1997);

 

How Carbon Black is made at webexhibits.org

 

CAS 1333-86-4

Black with Brown, Blue or Neutral Undertone

2

I

BWS
8;8;8

109-160

A

-

PBk6

Shungite

C.I. Pigment Black 6;

Natural Carbon Black;

Shungite* [NP.p];

Shungite Natural Black;

 

77266

Natural amorphous variety of graphite of intense black color; Mix of crystalline silicate particles in a carbon matrix. (Ref from Natural Pigments);

CAS 1333-86-4

Cool Black

1

I

100

A

*Only found in the Zazhoginskoye deposit in Russia (Ref)

PBk7

Lamp black

Antique Black [HO.w(ant)];

Bistre (hue) [MA.o(Ren)];

Bistro;

Black [DR.a | HO.af];

Black Hacker (MA.o(HD)];

Blacking;

Blue Black;

Bone Black [GU];

Candle Black [PF.w];

Caligo;

Carbon [GU];

Carbon Black [ CAS.k | CL | CR.a(jo).ao.o | GO.a.ab.af.ag.ao | GU | JO.a | KA.ad.o.p | MA.o.p.w | OH.a | SE.a | TA.a.af ];

Carbon Lampblack;

Carbon soot;

Carbon Water [GU];

Channel Black [GU];

Channel Extra Black [GU];

Charcoal Black [RGH.o];

Charcoal Gray [SCH.w];

C.I. Pigment Black 7;

Flame Black;

Flamruss;

Fuligino;

Fuligo;

Fullerene tubes;

Furnace Black;

Graphite Grey [WL.p];

Grey Shade [CH];

Ivory Black [CR.a | DB.a | HO.g | MA.a | MR.o | WL.p];

Ivory Black Imitation [PF.o]

Jet Black [AS];

Lamp Black[GEN | AS | DB.o.w | DR.o.o.w.w | DS.a.i.o.p.w | HO.a.ag | MH.o | MW.o | RT.a.o | SCH.o.o(Mus).p | WN.g];

Lampblack;

Lampenschwlarz;

Mars Black [DB.a | CR.ao.o | WL.p];

Mummy (hue) [MA.o(Ren)];

Negro de humo;

Nero di Lampa;

Nero Fiamma;

Nero Fume;

Noir de Bougie;

Noir de Fumeé;

Nnoir de Houille;

Noir de Lampe;

Oil Black;

Pigment Black 7;

Primary Black [OH.g];

Process Black [DR.a(s3hb).a(s3mb)];

Russ;

Scheveningen Intense Black [OH.o.w];

Sepia [MA.g];

Smoke Black;

Soot Black;

Transparent Black [HO.o];

Transparent Shading Gray [GO.ab];

Vegetable Black;

Velvet Black [DR.g];

77266

Inorganic;

Amorphous carbon from soot (Ref: Color Index, Pigment and Solvent Dyes Edition, 1997). Lamp soot was the one manufacture method hence the name.(Ref Boston Fine arts);

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Carbon Black;

 

CAS 1333-86-4

Deep Black, brown undertone

1-2

I

BWS
8;8;8 (CR)

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

58-117

A*

MSDS

MSDS

*Carbon is not hazardous, but there may be other combustion products that are hazardous and are can be present as impurities when produced from natural materials. Commercial preparations of the pigment should be considered as possibly slightly toxic. Avoid skin contact and inhalation. Where such impurities are present, Lamp Black is a possible human carcinogen. (Ref: Dick Blick pigment info)

 

Very fine particle size (Ref Natural Pigments)

PBk8

Vine Black

Black Ochre;

Blue Black;

Carbon Black [SE.o];

Charcoal;

Charcoal Black;

Charcoal Grey [HO.o | WN.o];

C.I. Pigment Black 8;

Coke Black;

Cork Black**;

Drop Black;

Earth Black;

Frankfort Black;

German Black;

Grade Black;

Grape Black;

Kernel Black;

Marc Black;

Mineral Black;

Native Black;

Paper Black;

Peach Black;

Pigment Black 8;

Prussian Black;

Roman Black [NP.p];

Roman Earth;

Spanish Black;

Transparent Black [AS];

Vegetable Black;

Vine Black [GR.o | OH.o.w? | SCH.p | SE.os];

Wine Lees Black;

Yeast Coke;

Yeast Black

77268

Inorganic;

Natural carbon of organic and mineral origin and may contain a substantial amount of impurities*** (Ref: Color Index, Pigment and Solvent Dyes Edition, 1997).;

"Impure carbon of organic and mineral origin"*** (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77268);

Made by burning vegetable matter in a low oxygen environment. Name comes from the grape vines* used in one method of manufacture., (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.396); , (Ref paint making at paintmaking.com);

 

How Carbon Black is made at webexhibits.org

 

CAS 1339-82-8

Black, Undertone depends on impurities can be blueish to brownish

2

I

BWS
8;8;8

H

A

* Similar to the vine charcoal sticks used in drawing, and just powdered

 

** Cork Black is also referred to as ‘beggar’s ultramarine’ or 'poor man's ultramarine' and said to be the 'bluest of blacks' (Ref Pigment Compendium, 2008, p.138);

 

*** this definition seems to indicate that the natural mineral blacks (i.e. Roman Earth, Black Ochre) as well as the blacks from burning vegetable matter (i.e. Vine Black, Cork Black) fit the designation of Pigment Black 8.

 

 

PBk9

Bone Black

Abaiser;

Animal Black;

Animal Bone Charcoal;

Animal Charcoal;

Blue Black;

Bone Black [ DS.p | GO.a.af.ag.ao | KP.p | WN];

Bone Black (Ivory) [DS.p];

Bone Char;

Bone Charcoal;

C.I. Pigment Black 9;

Carbone Animale;

Drop Black;

Elfenbeinschwarz (Deut.);

Frankfort Black?*;

German Black;

ivoorzwart (Ned.);

Ivory Black (hue*) [GEN | AS | BX.o.w | BR | DB.a.o.o.w | DR.a.o.o(georg).o.w.w.t | DS.a.o.w | DV.w | GB.o.o.p | GR.o.o.w.w.wo | HO.w.wo | KA.o.p | LB.o | LQ.a | MA.o.o(artis).p.w.w | MG.a.g.o.w | MH.o | MW.o.wo | OH.a.o.w | RGH.o.p | ROSS.o | RT.a.o.wo | SE.a.o.o.p.w | SCH.a.g.o.o(Mus).p | SH.w | TA.a.af | UT.a.o.w | WL.o | WN.a.a.g.k.o.wo.w.w.wp];

Ivory Black Extra [ OH.a.o.w ];

Lamp Black [AS | DR.g | SCH];

Mayro elefantodontoy (Gr.);

Negro de Huesos;

Negro marfil (Esp.);

Negro de marfim (Port.);

Nero Avorio;

Nero d'avorio (It.);

Nero d'ossa;

Noir Animal;

Noir d'os;

Noir d'ivoire (Fr.);

Ossa Sepiae;

Paris Black;

Pigment Black 9;

Sepia Extra [OH.o];

Velvet black

77267

 

Inorganic;

Amorphous Charred-Bone Carbon;

Calcined animal bones consisting of a "Mixture of carbon (10%), calcium phosphate (78%), calcium carbonate (8%) with small quantities of calcium sulphate, magnesium phosphate, calcium sulfide and other soluble salts" (Ref: Color Index, Pigment and Solvent Dyes Edition, 1997);

Ivory Black (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO Database);

Bone Black (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

Animal Black (Ref at Boston Fine Arts CAMEO);

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Ivory Black;

 

How bone black is made at webexhibits.org

 

CAS 8021-99-6

 

 

Brownish Black

2

I

BWS
8;8;8

50

A

MSDS

(Ref)

* Although similar in chemical composition, true Ivory black is from calcined ivory. Ivory is now banned and illegal to import. Bone black and Ivory black have come to be used interchangeably to name artist paints made from Calcined (burnt) animal bones.

 

?* incorrect? (Ref)

PBk10

Graphite

Acheson Graphite;

Beech Charcoal [KP.p];

Black Graphite [KA.p];

Black lead;

Blacklead;

C.I. Pigment Black 10;

Graphite [SCH];

Graphite Gray [CAS.k | DS.a.o.w | GO.a | RGH.o.p | SCH.p | SE.a | TA.a.af | WL.o.p | WN.a];

Graphitan 6154;

Graphitan 7525;

Natural Graphite Chunks [KA.p];

Liquid Graphite [GU];

Pigment Black 10;

Plumbago;

Silver Graphite [KA.p];

Stove Polish;

77265

Inorganic;

Crystallized Carbon;

 

CAS 7782-42-5

Dark gray with metallic sheen

1

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

-

A

The graphite grey oil paint can be used to make wonderful pencil like oil sketches.;

 

There are unverified rumored reports of migration of graphite to other layers in oil colors, it's unknown at this time if this is relative to graphite in a binder of linseed oil of just the pencil sketch coming through other layers of paint, possibly . More research or tests may be needed.

PBk11

Mars Black

Anthracite Black [LA.a];

Ash Black;

C.I. Pigment Black 11;

Black [HO.a(gesso)];

Black 318 [EP.p];

Black Iron Oxide [SCH.o.p];

Black Oxide;

Black Oxide of Iron;

Ferrite Black;

Ferroso-ferric Black;

German Earth [WL.o.p];

Heavy Metal [MA.o(HD)];

Intense Black [PF.o];

Iron Black;

Iron Oxide;

Iron Oxide Black [CAS.k];

Italian Black Roman Earth [WL.p];

Lunar Black [DS.w];

Mars Black [GEN | BX.o | CH | CL | DB.a.o | DR.a.a(s3hb).a(s3mb). | DS.a.o.p | DV.k | GB.o.o.p | GO.a.ag | GR.o.o.wo| HO.a.wo | KA.o.p | LB.o | LQ.a | MA.a.o.o(artis).o.p | MG.a.o | MR.o | MW.o.wo | OH.a.o.w | RGH.o.p | SE.a.o.p | TA.a.af | UT.a.o | WL.o.p | WN.a.a.o.w.w.wp];

Mars Black Hue [GR.a]

Magnetite**;

Magnetite Genuine [DV.o**];

Magnetic Black;

Magnetic Black S 0045 [BASF];

Magnetic Oxide;

Magnetic pigment [BASF];

Mapico Black;

Natural Black [EP.p];

Natural Iron Oxide;

Noir naturel;

Oxide Black [RT.a.a.o];

Pigment Black 11;

Raw Umber [DB.o* | SE.o*];

Rhombehedral Magnetite;

Roman Earth [WL.o];

Synthetic Black Oxide;

Urban Grey [MA.o(HD)];

Vine Black [BX.o]

77489

77499

Inorganic;

Synthetic or natural black Iron Oxide with traces of SiO2 and Al2O3 in natural forms (Ref Paint Film Components, National Environmental Health Monographs by M van Alphen, 1998);

Ferroso-ferric oxide;

Ferroso-ferric hydroxide;

 

 

**Magnetite is the natural form (mindat.com Ref); (Webmineral.com Ref);

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Mars Black;

 

FeO;

Fe2O3

 

CAS 12227-89-3

Bluish gray to black

2

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

15

A

MSDS

MSDS

MSDS

ICSC

 

PBk12

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel

Brown 20C8191;

Autumn Brown No.156;

Battleship Gray No.6;

Chestnut Brown;

Chocolate Brown [GU];

C.I. Pigment Black 12;

Golden Brown;

Iron Titanate;

Iron Titanium Brown;

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel;

Llmenite*;

Natural iron ore*;

Pigment Black 12;

Russet Brown;

Shepherd Brown

77543

Inorganic;

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel is an inorganic pigment that is the created by calcining iron (II) oxide and titanium (IV) oxide, in varied ratios, that react to create an inverse crystalline spinel matrix. Its composition may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, and/or ZnO (Ref IPConsortium);

 

Iron titanate in a spinel crystal lattice;

 

The Natural mineral is ilmenite or titaniferous iron ore. "It is not so heavy as black iron oxide and free from the tendency to 'float'" like carbon blacks can do. (Ref Color index 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colorants CI 77543)

* Natural iron ore has impurities;

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel (i);

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel (ii);

Iron Titanium Brown Spinel (iii);

 

CPMA 13-34-7;

 

CAS 68187-02-0

Dark red to brownish yellow black

1-2

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

17-26

A

MSDS1

-

PBk13

Cobalt Black

Black Cobalt Oxide;

C.I. Pigment Black 13;

Cobalt Sesquioxide;

Cobalt Oxide, gray /grey;

Cobalt Tetraoxide;

Cobalt Black;

Cobalt(III)Oxide;

Cobaltic Tetraoxide;

Cobaltic Oxide;

Cobalt(III) Oxide Black

Pigment Black 13;

77322

Inorganic;

Cobaltous oxide;

Cobalt Tetraoxide;

Cobalt(II,III) Oxide;

Cobalt(III)Oxide;

Cobalt(+2,+3)Oxide;

Cobalt(2,3) Oxide;

Cobaltic Tetraoxide;

Cobalt(II)-Cobalt(III)-Oxide;

 

CAS 1307-96-6

Grayish black

2

I

-

B

ICSC

-

PBk14

Manganese Black

Black Umber;

Brown Umber;

Bog manganese;

Cement black;

C.I. Pigment Black 14;

Manganese Black

Manganese Dioxide;

Manganese peroxide;

Manganese (VI) oxide;

Mineral Brown Black [NP.p];

Pyrolusite;

Pigment Black 14

77728

Manganese Dioxide;

"Occurs naturally as pyrolusite and polianite but the commercial product is usually prepared from a mixture of pyrolusite, hausmannite, braunite and other manganese ores." (Ref Inorganic Colouring Matters, Color Index 3rd Ed.)

 

"the second major component of umbers. It occurs in some ochres and is present in small quantity in the siennas." (Ref Inorganic Colouring Matters, Color Index 3rd Ed.)

 

Manganese(IV) oxide (Ref wikipedia);

 

CAS 1313-13-9

Black

-

I

L-M

B

MSDS

-

PG17 Blk

Chromium Green Black Hematite

Black 10C909A2;

Chromium Green Black;

Chromium Green-Black Hematite;

Chromium Iron Oxide Black;

C.I. Pigment Green 17;

Hematite Oxide Black Brown;

Pigment Green 17;

Shepherd Black 10C909

 

 

see PG17 (Pigment Green 17)

77288

Chromium Green-Black Hematite Cr2O3 is an inorganic pigment that is the reaction product created by the high temperature calcination of chromium (III) oxide that creates a crystalline hematite. It may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, Fe2O3, and/or Mn2O3. (Ref IPConsortium);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Chromium Green-Black Hematite;

CrOFe

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Chromium Green-Black Hematite;

 

Ferro Data Sheet

 

CAS 12737-27-8;

CAS 68909-79-5

Brownish Black

1

I

10-13

A

MSDS

MSDS2

Used as a "cool" black pigment, when used for outside coatings it reflects the suns warmth instead of absorbing it like most blacks. This helps keep surfaces cooler and saves on cooling costs.

PBk17

Zinc Sulfide

Black Jack;

C.I. Pigment Black 17;

C.I. Pigment White 7;

Zinc Blende;

Zinc Sulfide

77975

Zinc sulfide

Grey to brownish grey

-

-

-

-

-

PBk18

Mineral Black

C.I. Pigment Black 18;

Flake Black;

Mineral Black;

Oil Black;

Pigment Black 18;

Slate Black (hue) ?*[WL.p];

77011

"Carbonaceous hydrated aluminium silicate which may contain up to 30% of carbon." (Ref Colorindex 3rd Ed., V.4, Inorganic colourants CI 77011);

 

CAS 12001-98-8

Grey to black

-

-

-

-

?* Williamsburg's web site lists their pigment form of Slate Black as PBk18, I believe it is a typo because their oil paint Slate Black is PBk19 (Slate Black), although chemically similar, I don't think there would be any advantage for them in using PBk18 instead of the real slate black for this pigment.

PBk19

Slate Black

 

Ardoise;

Nero Bernino [KP.p];

Black chalk;

C.I. Pigment Black 19;

Davy's Grey [WNd];

Davy's Grey Deep [WL.o.o(SF).p];

French Ardoise Grey [WL.o(SF)];

Gray Hydrated Aluminum Silicate;

Ground Schist;

Mineral Black;

Mineral Grey;

Neutral Grey

Pigment Black 19;

Powdered Slate;

Slate [EP.p];

Slate Black;

Slate Black (Davy's Grey Extra Deep) [WL.o.p] ;

Slate Gray;

Slate Grey;

Slate Grey, dark [KP.p];

Steel Grey;

Stone Chalk

77017

Inorganic;

Powdered Slate;

Hydrated Aluminum Silicate; (Ref), (Ref)

Greenish to blueish grey to black

2

I

-

A

-

PBk22

Copper Chromite Black

C.I. Pigment Black 22;

Copper chromite black spinel;

Fast Black 100;

Pigment Black 22

77429

Inorganic;

Copper chromite created in a spinel crystalline form;

 

CAS 55353-02-1

Black

4

I

-

B

-

PBk23

Tin Antimony Gray

Antimony Gray Cassiterite;

C.I. Pigment Black 23;

Tin Antimony Cassiterite;

Tin Antimony Grey;

Tin Antimony Grey Cassiterite;

Pigment Black 23

77865

Inorganic;

Tin Antimony Grey (gray) Cassiterite (Sn,Sb)O2 is made by calcining a mixture of Tin (IV) Oxide and Antimony (V) Oxide in varied ratios creating a interdiffused crystalline matrix of cassiterite. Its may include any one or more of the modifiers MnO, SiO2, TiO2, V2O5 to adjust color hue and/or other properties (Reference: 4th ed. CMPA Classification and Chemical Description of the Complex Inorganic Color Pigments). .

 

CPMA 11-24-8;

 

CAS 68187-54-2

Bluish Gray

-

-

-

B

-

PBk24

Titanium Vanadium Antimony Gray

Antimony Vanadium Gray Rutile;

C.I. Pigment Black 24;

Pigment Black 24;

Titanium Vanadium Antimony Gray Rutile;

Vanadium Antimony Gray;

Vanadium Antimony Gray Rutile;

 

77898

Inorganic;

Titanium Vanadium Antimony Rutile, is obtained by combining a mixture of Titanium (IV) Oxide, Vanadium (IV) Oxide, and Antimony (V) Oxide at high temperature creating a homogeneous, interdiffused crystalline rutile form;

 

CPMA 11-21-8

 

CAS 68187-00-8

Bluish Gray

-

-

-

B

-

PBk25

Cobalt Nickel Gray

C.I. Pigment Black 25;

Cobalt Nickel Gray;

Cobalt Nickel Gray Periclase;

Gun-Metal Grey 6591;

Pigment Black 25;

Sicocer® F Gray 1985 [BASF]

77332

Inorganic;

Cobalt Nickel complex;

Cobalt (II) Oxide and Nickel (II) Oxide calcined to create a periclase crystalline matrix. It may include Al2O3, CaO, Cr2O3, FeO, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, and/or ZrO2 as modifiers.

 

CAS 68186-89-0

Neutral Dark Gray

-

-

-

B

-

PBk26

Manganese Ferrite Black

Black 20F9441;

C.I. Pigment Black 26;

Copper Iron Manganese Oxide Spinel;

Iron Manganese Black;

Iron Manganese Black Spinel;

Manganese Ferrite Black;

Manganese Ferrite Black Spinel;

Daipyroxide Black 9550;

Pigment Black 26;

Spinel Black [SI.p]

77494

Inorganic;

Manganese Ferrite Black Spinel (Fe,Mn)(Fe,Mn)2O4 is made by calcining, at high temperature, a mixture of oxides of ferrous iron and ferric iron, divalent and trivalent manganese in differing amounts to create a crystalline spinel matrix. Its composition may include any one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, CoO, CuO, NiO3, SiO2 or TiO2 used during the creation process to tailor properties (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Manganese Ferrite;

 

CPMA 13-41-9;

 

CAS 68186-94-7

Jet black

1

I

24-26

A

MSDS1

"true black, reflects virtually no color"

-Sinopia.com

PBk27

Iron Cobalt Chromite Black

C.I. Pigment Black 27;

Chromium Cobalt Iron Black;

Chromium Cobalt Iron Black Spinel;

Iron Cobalt Chromite Black;

Iron Cobalt Chromite Black Spinel;

Pigment Black 27;

Sicopal® Black 0090 [BASF];

Sicocer® F Black 10901 [BASF];

 

77502

Inorganic;

Iron Cobalt Chromite Black Spinel (Fe,Co)(Fe,Cr)2O4 is created by the high temperature calcination of a mixture of oxides of ferrous iron, cobalt, ferric iron and chromium in varying amounts, that creates a spinel form crystalline matrix. Its composition may have one or more of the modifiers Al2O3, B2O3, MnO, NiO and/or SiO2. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

CPMA 13-40-9;

 

CAS 68186-97-0

Black

-

-

20

B

MSDS

-

PBk28

Copper Chromite Black

Black 30C9652;

Black Spinel [GB.o];

Chromium Copper [GU];

Chromium Copper Black;

Chromium Copper Black Spinel;

C.I. Pigment Black 28;

Copper Chromite Black;

Copper Chromite Black Spinel;

Daipyroxide Black 9510;

Ebony Black;

Fragonard Black [PF.o];

Jet Black;

Mineral Black [ SCH.o(Mus)];

Neutral Black;

Pigment Black 28;

Shepherd Black;

Spinel Black [HO.wo];

Transoxide black [LA.a]

77428

Inorganic;

Copper Chromite Black Spinel CuCr2O4 is obtained by calcining at high temperature a mixture of copper oxides and chromium oxides in varying ratios to create a crystalline spinel matrix. The constitution may include any one or more of the modifiers Fe2O3 or MnO. (Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Copper Chromite Spinel;

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Copper Chromite Black;

 

CPMA 13-38-9;

 

CAS 68186-91-4

Blueish black to jet black

1

I

13-18

B

MSDS

MSDS2

-

PBk29

Iron Cobalt Black

C.I. Pigment Black 29;

Cobalt Iron Black;

Cobalt Iron Black Spinel;

Iron Cobalt Black;

Iron Cobalt Black Spinel;

Pigment Black 29

77498

Inorganic;

Iron Cobalt Black, created by calcination of Iron (II) Oxide, Cobalt (II) Oxide, and Iron (III) Oxide in varied ratios creating a ionically interdiffused spinel form crystalline matrix. In can be modified with the addition of any or either of the chemicals Al2O3, B2O3, MnO, NiO, SiO2 and/or SnO2 during the creation process;

 

CPMA 13-39-9

 

CAS 68187-50-8

Black

1

I

-

B

-

PBk30

Chrome Iron Nickel Black

Black 376A1;

Cavern Black;

Chrome Iron Nickel Black;

Chrome Iron Nickel Black Spinel;

Chromium Iron Nickel Black;

C.I. Pigment Black 30;

Onyx Black;

Pigment Black 30;

Shepherd Black

77504

Inorganic;

Chrome Iron Nickel Black Spinel (Ni,Fe)(Cr,Fe)2O4 is created by the calcining at high-temperature a mixture of Chromium (II) Oxide, Iron (II) Oxide, Iron (III) Oxide in varied ratios creating a crystalline spinel matrix. Its composition may include one or more of the modifiers CuO, MnO or Mn2O3.(Ref Color Index 4th edition);

 

Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO) (PCImag Ref):

Chrome Iron Nickel Black Spinel;

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Chrome Iron Nickel Black Spinel;

 

CPMA 13-50-9;

 

CAS 71631-15-7

Blue shade black to jet black

1

I

12-15

A

MSDS1

-

PBk31

Paliogen Black

Atrament black [ SCH.a.o(Mus)];

C.I. Pigment Black 31;

Paliogen Black;

Paliogen Black L0084 [BASF];

Paliogen® Black S 0084 [BASF];

Perylene Black [WN.g.o];

Perylene Green [DS.w | DV.w | WN.a.w.wp];

Perylene Green Black [GU[;

Pigment Black 31;

Shadow Green [HO.w.wo | SH.w];

71132

Inorganic; Perylene; (Ref)

 

CAS 67075-37-0

Intense very dark bluish green

3

I

BWS
8;8;8
(guerra paint)

40

A

MSDS

Very deep green, almost black in masstone, nice for cool shadows and glazes.

PBk32

Perylene Black

BASF Paliogen Black L0086;

C.I. Pigment Black 32;

Paliogen Black L0086 [BASF];

Perylene Green;

Pigment Black 32

71133

Inorganic;

Perylene; (Ref);

 

LBNLPigment Database Spectral radiative properties;

Perylene Black;

 

CAS 83524-75-8

Very dark blackish green or brown

2

I

35-40

A

-

PBk33

Iron Manganese Oxide

Bayferrox 303T;

C.I. Pigment Black 33;

Iron Manganese Oxide;

Pigment Black 33

77537

Inorganic; Synthetic mixed manganese oxide with a minimum of 58% iron oxide; CAS 68186-94-7

CAS 75864-23-2

Black

-

I

25

A

-

PBk34

Molybdenum Disulfide

C.I. Pigment Black 34;

Graphitan 7700;

Molybdenite;

Moly Disulfide;

Pigment Black 34;

 

77770

Inorganic; Natural Molybdenum Disulfide; CAS 56780-54-2

Black

1

I

-

A

Used to give a “silk” effect mixed with mica or other colors in auto finishes

PBk35

Titanium Dioxide Black

C.I. Pigment Black 35;

Tilac D;

TiLox-Black;

Pigment Black 35

77890

Inorganic; Reduced titanium oxide; CAS 51745-87-0

blueish Black

-

I

L

A

-


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PAINT AND PIGMENT REFERANCE TABLE KEY:    Page Top^
Jump to : Supplier\Manufacturer Codes  |  Binder/Medium Codes

Opacity

1 = opaque
4 = trans.

Light
Fastness

I = excel.
IV=Fugitive

Toxic


Color Index Generic Name:
  Key Top ^ Page Top^
This is the C.I. Generic Name (abbreviated) given by the ASTM and Colour Index International (CII) for that pigment. The first 2 or 3 letters describe the general pigment color and the number is the individual pigment identifier. N/A (not applicable) means that pigment has not been given a color index name or number.

Natural Dye and Solvent Pigments
These are naturally occurring organic pigments and dyes. With a few exceptions, most are plant or animal extracts or dyes that need to be fixed to a substrate to become pigments (i.e. Madder Lake). A few are organic natural earths such as Cassel earth (Van Dyke Brown). They are designated with C.I. Generic name of which consists of the usage class "Natural" and basic hue, followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Natural Brown 8). Natural pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class N + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. NBr 8)
  Pigment
Pigments can be organic or Inorganic. Most modern pigments are given this usage designation by the Color Index. They can be completely synthetic, naturally occurring minerals, or lakes based on the synthetic derivatives of natural dyes. Pigments are designated with C.I. Generic name which consists of the usage class "Pigment" and the basic hue followed by the CI serial number (i.e. Pigment Red 106, Cadmium Red). The pigment CI generic names are often abbreviated with the usage class P + the hue abbreviation + the serial number. (i.e. PR83 for Pigment Red 83)

 

NY = Natural Yellow;
NO = Natural Orange;
NR = Natural Red;
NV = Natural Violet;
NB = Natural Blue;
NG = Natural Green;
NBr = Natural Brown;
NBk = Natural Black;
NW = Natural White;

 

 

PY = Pigment Yellow;
PO = Pigment Orange;
PR = Pigment Red;
PV = Pigment Violet;
PB = Pigment Blue;
PG = Pigment Green;
PBr = Pigment Brown;
PBk = Pigment Black;
PW = Pigment White;
PM = Pigment Metal

 

The CI (Color Index) Common Pigment Name:   Key Top ^ Page Top^
In this database the common name is the name given in the Color Index (third edition, 1997) by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials.

When the Colour Index (3rd edition) has not specified a name, I have used the name that the first manufacturer, inventor or original patent holder has given that pigment. In the case of ancient pigments, historic pigments, minerals or other odd pigments, I have used the most commonly used traditional historic, mineral or chemical name as determined by my research.


Common, Historic and Marketing Names:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the various names that have been used for that pigment whether or not it is the correct usage. This is NOT an endorsement of any particular name, but merely a collection of names that are in common usage or have been used in the past according to historic pigment books & references, paint sales literature, and pigment manufacturers references. They have been collected (in order of importance) from

1.) Paint manufacturers, pigment manufacturers and/or other pigment supplier literature;

2.) Various web sites in particular AMIEN.org, Dick Blick Artist Supply, Handprint.com, Kremer Pigments, Natural Pigments, Kama Pigments, Sinopia Pigments, PCImag.com and along with internet forums on art and painting, web sites of paint manufacturers, paint suppliers, chemical manufactures and pigment manufacturers;.

3.) The Color Index, Third edition (published by the Colour Index International, 1997);

4.) Historical books on pigments, oil painting, watercolor painting and other art forms (see Free Art e-Books);

5.) Artist manuals and handbooks (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works);

6.) Various dictionaries and encyclopedias (both historic and contemporary).

 

(hue):
When a manufacturer has has used a common historical name for a pigment that is not the accepted traditional historic pigment name and has not clearly indicated it to be a hue or substitute, I have indicated it with the "(hue)"* in parenthesis. For example calling\naming a paint made with Phthalocyanine Blue as "Azure", "Smalt" or "Cobalt Blue".

*In order to stay within ASTM specification D 4302-05, manufactures are encouraged to use the word "hue" when the paint or pigment marketing name is not the real name of a paint or a pigment. Substitute and tone could be also considered acceptable means of indicating a hue substitute for the actual color. However, the ASTM specifications are usually voluntary and there is little means to enforce them. Also because of language differences, changes in the paint or pigments common identification because of contemporary usage (often perpetrated by manufacturer's incorrect color marketing names), and last but not least - the sheer multitude of historically used paint names for any given paint\pigment, it's nearly impossible to prove or say a manufacturer of art materials is being purposely deceptive.

 

C.I. Constitution Number or Colour Index Constitution Number (chemical composition):   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the chemical constitution numbers given that pigment by the Color Index International published by the Society of Dyers and Colourists and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, and are also used by the ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials. Each of the numbers in the "Colour Index Constitution Number" has a specific chemical or compositional meaning; for more information see the Colour Index Number Chart or go to the Color Index International and ASTM, American Society for Testing and Materials web sites (these links open in a new window)..

Chemical Composition:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are the basic chemical names, or mineral names along with chemical composition. I have also included CAS numbers, when I can fine them. Sometimes multiple names are given because chemical names can be stated in different ways and can also give an indication of the manufacture method. Very often a pigment can be a group of related compounds rather than one specific chemical. I have not included detailed chemical descriptions or analyses, but only basic information that should help you to find further information. I have included references designated with "(Ref)" where further information can be attained.
Adulterants, extenders and other additives may be added to artistic paints to improve the paint rheology, transparency, and\or drying time. Often inert pigments, extenders and fillers are added to the color pigments in student grade paints or to modify paint pigments with overly strong tinting strength, i.e. the Phthalocyanine Blues and Greens.
These extra ingredients are rarely listed of the label.

Color Description:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This is a general attempt to explain the hue in plain English. The perception of color is as individual as the the people viewing it and any such description can not be completely accurate, but merely give a general idea of the what color looks like to the average person. Many pigments have a range of shades and hues. This range in hues can be due to many things such as different manufacturing processes, exact chemical composition and crystal shape. In most cases, i have not used any of the attempted means of standardizing color descriptions for this (such as the Munsell system), but where the pigment is included in the Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes (The Society of Dyers and Colourists, third edition 1997), I have used that description, when there is no color hue description in the Color Index, I have used other reference sources in particularly manufacturer or supplier literature.

† = Effects of long term light exposure are given when known, this may allow an artist to anticipate color changes and possibly use them as an advantage. These effects are all relative to the pigments inherent light fastness and may take decades or even centuries in museum conditions to be visible.

Fades = Becomes more Transparent
Lightens = Loses chroma but maintains relative transparency or opaque character;
Whitens = Becomes lighter towards white and more opaque;
Darkens = Becomes darker but retains hue;
Dulls = Loses chroma towards neutral but maintains the relative tone;  
Blackens = Turns very dark or black losing chroma;  
Hue shift = Changes hue towards a different color

Opacity - Transparency:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

This designation is only a general reference to the most common encountered opacity or transparency inherit to the pigment. In paints, the transparency of a pigment can change due to what is used as the painting medium or binder (i.e., oil color, watercolor, encaustic, acrylic, etc.). There are many pigments that are opaque in watercolor but transparent or semi-transparent in oil paints. The transparency of a paint or pigment can often be manipulated by the manufacturing process for a particular purpose. The addition of inert pigments or other modifiers can also change the perceived transparency of a paint formulation or pigment.
When available, i have used the Color index's designation or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. When the Color Index description is unavailable i have arrived at a general figure by manufacturer literature or personal experience. A general designation such as given will not always be the case in any particular formulation.
 
1 = Opaque,
2 = Semi-Opaque,
3 = Semi-Transparent,
4 = Transparent

Light Fastness Rating:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

The light fastness rating can only be a general guide, when available, i have used the ASTM rating or manufacturers literature to arrive at this figure. The ASTM has not rated all pigments, and I believe will no longer be rating pigments. For that reason the rating in this database will not always be the ASTM rating but a rating culled from other sources, most importantly manufactures literature. The ASTM ratings have a 5 increment scale and the blue-wool scale is 8, in this database lightfastness ratings have been condensed or averaged to a less specific 4 designations. Very often, pigments in tints are less light fast and this should be taken into account when determining if a pigment or paint will meet your needs. I can can not cover every possible paint, binder, or pigment formulation in this chart as it would take too much time and space. In particular the quality of the actual pigment manufacture has much influence on a pigments fastness to light, heat and other chemicals. Additives, binder, and many other factors all have a influence on light fastness or fastness to other environmental influences. Whether a paint is watercolor, oil color, tempera, etc. has an effect on light fastness. Varnishes and other treatments to the painting surface or support can have an influence too. The only way to be sure, is to make your own tests on the paint or pigment you have. Reference the following: (ASTM D4303 - 10, Standard Test Methods for Lightfastness of Colorants Used in Artists' Materials, or ASTM D01.57, the Subcommittee on Artists' Materials doc here, opens new window); or this (AMIEN.org Thread - opens new window). Blue Wool Scale will be given when known, but be aware that these may be from tests on a single formulation, and may not be the same for all brands or binders.
 
I = Excellent,
II = Good,
III = Poor (may last many years in museum conditions, but should be used with caution for permanent works of art)
IV = Fugitive/Very Poor

 

BWS = Blue wool scale

7-8 = Excellent,
6 = Very Good,
4-5
= Fair (Impermanent),
2-3 Poor (fugitive),
1
= Very Poor (fugitive)*

*When known, blue wool scale ratings will be given for tints in the following format: Full;1/2 tint/;1/4 tint (i.e. Cadmium Red would be 8;8;8 with excellent light fastness in all tints). Note: these may from tests on a single formulation or pigment brand, and may not be valid for other brands or binders.

 

Oil Absorption: is given in g/100g or grams of oil per 100 grams of pigment   Key Top ^ Page Top^
or as H, M, L (see below)

The oil absorption figure has been arrived at from the pigment manufacturer's literature or artist reference sources (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works). The higher the oil absorption, generally, the longer it will take to dry when used in oil painting. The addition of driers, siccatives, retardants and other additives can effect the drying time of any specific formulation, or they can be added by the artist to speed up or slow down the drying of oil paints. In some literature the oil absorption rate is given as ml/100g, although not technically the same as g/100g, for the purposes of this database they are close enough.

Depending on the specifications i have available I may also use the following designations:
H = High;   - These pigments absorb a lot of oil.
M = Medium;    - Average drying or cure rate
L = Low;    - Usually very fast driers

Toxicity:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

Under this heading will be a general designation of a possible hazard. It is assumed intelligent people will use at least ordinary care when handling all paints or pigments. The designation has been arrived at from, in most cases, the manufacturer's literature, art books and art reference works (see the bottom of the Pigment Database's main page for a complete list of reference works), MSDS sheets, the EPA manual: Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans (full PDF here), The Art & Creative Materials Institute, Inc. (ACMI), The Health and the Arts Program - Great Lakes Centers at the University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health (UIC SPH), The American Institute for Conservation of Historic & Artistic Works has a collection of articles on art safety, The Consumer Product Safety Commission's Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB) and Art Materials Business Guidance

All paints and especially dry pigments can be hazardous if carelessly handled, but, if handled properly with common sense all but the most dangerous pigments can be used safely. Very few pigments used in the arts are edible, and even so called "Food Colors" are not meant to be used in large quantities and may have unknown side effects or allergic reactions.

WARNING: Always use a dust mask when working with any dry pigments. Work in a separate area of your studio away from children, pets or other living things. Do not smoke, eat or drink around any art materials. Dispose of all waste materials in an environmentally safe way.

A = Low hazard, but do not handle carelessly;
B = Possible hazard if carelessly handled, ingested in large amounts or over long periods of time;
C = Hazardous, use appropriate precautions for handling toxic substances; 
D = Extremely Toxic, only attempt working with these pigments (especially the dry form) in laboratory like conditions with proper safety equipment (see "Prudent practices in the laboratory: handling and disposal of chemicals" at google books opens new window); or the PDF - Booklet Safe Handling of Colour Pigments Copyright © 1995: BCMA, EPSOM, ETAD, VdMI - link from VdMI


The Side Notes Column:   Key Top ^ Page Top^

These are typically interesting things I have read, or information collected on a pigment that may be worth further study. Please remember that they are NOT statements of absolute fact. Many pigment qualities are rumors, old wife's tales and misconceptions repeated over and over until they accepted as fact without any scientific proof. References (Ref) may be provided for further info.

Miscellaneous:

(hue) = When the word "hue" in in parenthesis (hue), it refers to a hue color not designated on the label, when the word "hue" is not in parenthesis is part of the pigment name as per ASTM guidelines.

(Ref) = A link to a reference source. This may be the reference source of the information that I have given, or just a link to more detailed information.

? = a question mark next to a name, note, or data code indicates that it may or may not be correct information due to conflicting information, questionable references, possible typo or other discrepancies in the manufacturer or other reference documentation. Further study is needed to clarify.

Paint or Pigment Manufacturer Code & Art Medium:*****   Key Top ^ Page Top^
Paint/Pigment Manufacturer Code:
The manufacturer code is to indicate companies that make or supply paints or pigments using the particular pigment. Only those products that are single pigments will be indicated in this database. In a few cases, the Color Index International has listed a mixture of pigments or chemicals under a single color index pigment name or code, and these will also be designated as if they were a single pigment. The codes next to the pigments in above Color of Art Database may take you off sight where you can find more info or even purchase, if you so desire. These codes are not part of any standard, but were made up by me for this database, with purpose of making them as short as possible.
The links below next to the manufacturer code below are to the official manufacturer web site and will open in a new window.

DG = Daniel Green

EP = Earth Pigments

GB = Gamblin

GEN = Common Generic term

GO = Golden

GR = Grumbacher

GU = Guerra Paint & Pigment

HO = Holbien

JO = Jo Sonja

KA = Kama Pigments

KP = Kremer Pigmente  (USA site)


Paint medium or binder code:  Key Top ^ Page Top^

Clicking on the paint or pigment manufacturer code next to the pigment name will take you off site where more information can be found. The link will most often take you to an art supplier where you can find more specific art medium or paint binder info, purchasing source, pigment properties, pigment history, MSDS sheets, and whether it is the artist premium or student economy grade. If you find this site helpful you can help support this site by purchasing through these links.

d in italics next to the pigment manufacturer or art supplier code indicates a discontinued pigment or paint.
All other art medium or binder codes in italics mean the pigment under that name is in the "student" or economy grade, not the "artist's" grade paint.

a = Acrylic Paint, heavy body;

ab = Acrylic Airbrush colors;

ad = Aqueous pigment dispersions;

af = Fluid Acrylics;

ag = Matte Acrylic or Acrylic Gouache;

ao = open acrylics or slow drying

k = Alkyd paints;

c = Casein or milk paint;

d = Discontinued

e = Encaustic paints;

g = Traditional water color Gouache;

i = Ink (printing ink or pigmented drawing inks);

o = Oil Paint;

p = Dry Pigment;

t = Artist Professional Tempera or Egg Tempera;

w = Watercolor Paint in tubes;

wp = Watercolor Pan; wp = 1/2 pan, wp(f) = full pan, wp(L) = large pan

wo = Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint.

 

am = Acrylic medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

om = Oil painting Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

wm = Watercolor Medium, may have a wide variety of ingredients or uses

GEN = Where there is a generally accepted common historic name associated with a pigment, I have used "GEN" to denote the generic or common historical name of a particular pigment.


Other than gouache, only single pigment paints and pigments are included. Gouache is designated distinct from watercolors because it is often mixed with white or additives to make it matte and/or opaque and that is not usually indicated on the paint manufactures literature. Other art material or medium forms such as pastel, oil pastels, oil bars, dyes and ceramic glazes will not be designated with a artists medium or binder code, but may still be listed under the pigment name with a company code.

 


©2013 by David Myers, All Rights Reserved. Please email me with corrections, additions or comments.

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Artist Reference Resources:

Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:  
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the
Free Art Books Page.

  1. The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
    By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
  2. The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
    By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
  3. The Science of Painting,
    By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
  4. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
  5. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
  6. The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
    By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
  7. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
    By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
  8. A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
    By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
  9. The Household Cyclopedia,
    By Henry Hartshorne 1881
  10. The Chemistry of Pigments,
    By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
  11. Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
    By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
  12. The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
    By DR. JOSEF BERSCH, translated by CHARLES SALTER,SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON , 1921 Link
  13. Materials for Permanent Painting,
    By Maximilian Toch 1911

 

Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:

  1. The Artist’s Handbook,
    by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
  2. The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
    Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
  3. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
    Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
  4. Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Robert L. Feller
  5. Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
  6. Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
  7. Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
  8. Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
    Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
    The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
  10. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
    Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
  11. The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
    by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
  12. The Painter's Handbook,
    Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
  13. Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
    by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
  14. Pigment Compendium,
    by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004

 

 

Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:

  1. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):

    National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

  2. AMIEN:
    a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
  3. Blick Art Materials;
    has done a extremely thorugh job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
    Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
    for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuble resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
  4. Coloria.net,
    a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish http://www.coloria.net/index.htm
  5. Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
    developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
  6. Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
    A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
  7. The Handprint,com;
    site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
  8. Webexhibits.org;
    Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
  9. The Real Color Wheel;
    by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
  10. Studiomara;
    has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
  11. Health and Safety in the Arts;
    A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
  12. Household Products Database;
    Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
  13. Natural Pigments:
    One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
  14. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
  15. Paintmaking.com: By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
  16. PCImag.com; Paint & Coatings Indusry
        2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
  17. Dick Blick Artist Supply:
    Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
  18. Kremer Pigmente EuropeKremer Pigments USA site;
    Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
  19. Earth Pigments:
    Specializes in earth pigments.
  20. Guerra Paint and Pigments:
    Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
  21. Sinopia:
    Lots of Pigments & info

Health and Safty in the Arts References and Info:

  1. Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  2. Art Materials Business Guidance
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  3. Art Safety
    Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
  4. Artist Safety
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
  5. Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
    U. S. Environment Protection Agency
  6. Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
    Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
  7. Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
    CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
  8. Health and Safety Guides and Publications
    American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
  9. Art Safety
    Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
  10. Health and the Arts Program
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  11. Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  12. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
    New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
  13. Studio Safety
    Gamblin Artists Colors

 

 

Artist Reference Resources:

Historical Artist and Pigment Reference Sources:  
This is just a partial list, for a more complete listing of Historical Pigment References see the
Free Art Books Page.

  1. The Industrial and Artistic Technology of Paint and Varnish,
    By Alvah Horton Sabin, Published by J. Wiley & Sons, 1904
  2. The Painters' Encyclopaedia,
    By Franklin B. Gardner, Published by M.T. Richardson, 1887
  3. The Science of Painting,
    By Jehan Georges Vibert, Published by P. Young, 1892
  4. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Cennino Cennini, Giuseppe Tambroni, Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Translated by Mary Philadelphia Merrifield, Published by Lumley, 1844
  5. A Treatise on Painting,
    By Leonardo Da Vinci, John Francis Rigaud, Published by J.B. Nichols and Son 1835
  6. The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini,
    By Cennino Cennini, Cennini, Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Translated by Christiana Jane Powell Herringham, Published by G. Allen & Unwin, ltd., 1899
  7. The Chemistry of Paints and Painting,
    By Arthur Herbert Church, Published by Seeley, 1901
  8. A Handbook for Painters and Art Students on the Character and Use of Colours,
    By William J. Muckley, Published by Baillière, Tindall, and Cox, 1880
  9. The Household Cyclopedia,
    By Henry Hartshorne 1881
  10. The Chemistry of Pigments,
    By Ernest John Parry, John Henry Coste, Published by Scott, Greenwood, 1902
  11. Facts about Processes, Pigments and Vehicles: A Manual for Art Student,
    By Arthur Pillans Laurie, Published by Macmillan, 1895
  12. The Manufacture Of Earth Colours:
    By DR. JOSEF BERSCH, translated by CHARLES SALTER,SCOTT, GREENWOOD & SON , 1921 Link
  13. Materials for Permanent Painting,
    By Maximilian Toch 1911

 

Modern Pigment and Artist Reference Sources:

  1. The Artist’s Handbook,
    by Pip Seymour, Arcturus Publishing (September 16, 2003)
  2. The Artist's Handbook, Revised Edition,
    Ray Smith; DK Publishing 2003
  3. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques,
    Third edition, by Ralph Mayer; Viking Press 1979
  4. Artists' Pigments: Volume 1: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Robert L. Feller
  5. Artists' Pigments: Volume 2: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Ashok Roy (Oct 2, 1993)
  6. Artists' Pigments: Volume 3: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Elisabeth West Fitzhugh (Oct 1997)
  7. Artists' Pigments: Volume 4: A Handbook of their History and Characteristics
    Edited by Barbara Berrie (Jun 7, 2007)
  8. Collins Artist's Colour Manual,
    Simon Jennings; HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. Color Index International Pigments and Solvent Dyes,
    The Society of Dyers and colourists, third edition 1998
  10. A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques,
    Ralph Mayer, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, 1969
  11. The Materials and Techniques of Painting,
    by Jonathan Stephenson (May 1993)
  12. The Painter's Handbook,
    Mark David Gottsegen; Watson-Guptill Publications 1993
  13. Painting Materials A Short Encyclopaedia,
    by Rutherford J. Gettens and George L. Stout; Dover Publications 1966
  14. Pigment Compendium,
    by Nicholas Eastaugh, Valentine Walsh, Tracey Chaplin, Ruth Siddall; Butterworth Heinemann 2004

 

 

Web Resources and Art Suppliers with Excellent Reference Materials:

  1. American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC):

    National membership organization in the United States dedicated to the preservation of cultural material, establishes and upholds professional standards, promoting research and publications, educational opportunities, and fostering the exchange of knowledge among conservators, allied professionals, and the public.

  2. AMIEN:
    a resource for artists dedicated to providing the most comprehensive, up-to-date, accurate, and unbiased factual information about artists' materials
  3. Blick Art Materials;
    has done a extremely thorough job of indicating the pigments used in most of the paints they sell, making the Dick Blick art supply website much more than just a store to purchase paint and art supplies.
    Dick Blick also has the MSDS sheets
    for of most of the products they sell , making the Blick site a valuable resource for toxicity info and the health and safety of artist materials.
  4. Coloria.net,
    a large and thorough site on pigments, in Finnish http://www.coloria.net/index.htm
  5. Conservation and Art Materials Encyclopedia Online (CAMEO), The Materials Database,
    developed at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA), to be a more comprehensive and well-rounded encyclopedic resource for the art conservation and historic preservation fields. The MATERIALS database contains chemical, physical, visual, and analytical information on over 10,000 historic and contemporary materials used in the production and conservation of artistic, architectural, archaeological, and anthropological materials.
  6. Conservation OnLine (CoOL):
    A freely accessible platform to generate and disseminate vital resources for those working to preserve cultural heritage worldwide.
  7. The Handprint,com;
    site by Bruce MacEvoy has loads of excellent information on watercolor pigments and Has a excellent color wheel showing where the actual pigments are in color space. Truly an awesome site, the site is directed at watercolors, but is a good general reference for any paints or pigments.
  8. Webexhibits.org;
    Great pigment sight that even includes step by step instructions for making you own pigments.
  9. The Real Color Wheel;
    by Don Jusko is also a great color site.
  10. Studiomara;
    has a fantastic pigment reference database sorted by the marketing paint color name and brand.
  11. Health and Safety in the Arts;
    A Searchable Database of Health & Safety Information for Artists
  12. Household Products Database;
    Health and safety information on household products from the US Department of Health and Human Services
  13. Natural Pigments:
    One of the best sources of rare natural and historical pigments and information.
  14. Pigments and their Chemical and Artistic Properties; by Julie C. Sparks, is part of The Painted Word Site. Wonderful stuff.
  15. Paintmaking.com: By Tony Johansen, Great Paint making site with all types of useful pigment and binder information for the artist.
  16. PCImag.com; Paint & Coatings Indusry
        2010 Additives Handbook by Darlene Brezinski, Dr. Joseph V. Koleske, Robert Springate, June 4, 2010;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 1;
        A History of Pigment Use in Western Art Part 2
  17. Dick Blick Artist Supply:
    Full Range of art supplies at discount prices and has pigment info on most paints they sell
  18. Kremer Pigmente EuropeKremer Pigments USA site;
    Has a huge amount of pigments and information.
  19. Earth Pigments:
    Specializes in earth pigments.
  20. Guerra Paint and Pigments:
    Many rare and out of production Pigments mostly in aqueous dispersions
  21. Sinopia:
    Lots of Pigments & info

Health and Safety in the Arts References and Info:

  1. Art and Craft Safety Guide (PDF, 250 KB)
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  2. Art Materials Business Guidance
    Consumer Product Safety Commission
  3. Art Safety
    Environmental Protection, Health & Safety, California State University at Monterey Bay
  4. Artist Safety
    Center for Research on Occupational and Environmental Toxicology, Oregon Health & Science University
  5. Environmental Health & Safety in the Arts: A Guide for K-12 Schools, Colleges and Artisans
    U. S. Environment Protection Agency
  6. Exposing Ourselves to Art (PDF, 6.83 MB)
    Scott Fields. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume 105, Number 3, March 1997
  7. Health & Safety Bibliographic Resources and Resource Guides in Art Conservation
    CoOL – Conservation Online, Stanford University Libraries
  8. Health and Safety Guides and Publications
    American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Work
  9. Art Safety
    Office of Environmental Health and Safety, Connecticut College
  10. Health and the Arts Program
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  11. Online Health and Safety in the Arts Library
    The Occupational Health Service Institute, University of Illinois at Chicago
  12. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation
    New York Committee for Occupational Safety and Health
  13. Studio Safety
    Gamblin Artists Colors

 

 

 

 

 

 


This page of the Color of Art Pigment Database was designed for C.I. Pigment Brown.

CI Pigment Black is indicated with the pigment code "Pigment Black" followed by the color index international's pigment identification code number or pigment ID number. The full color index name or generic pigment name is usually shortened to the Color Index code which for pigment Black is "PBk" plus the color index # (after the "PBk" pigment Black code designation there is the Color index identifying number code for the specific pigment, i.e. "PBk 6" or "PBk 7"). All artist paints and pigments that are ASTM International (American Society for Testing and Materials) and ASTM D4236 - 94* compliant that are sold in the United States must have the pigment identification number or generic chemical names of the Black pigments that were used to make the natural earth paints or dry pigments (either powdered Black pigments or in the commonly found "pigment dispersions") and should be have the generic pigment name printed on the paint label. The "Black oil paint" tube or "Black oil color" paint label, along with the label on tubes of acrylic paints, and on the label on tubes of watercolor even when found as pans, half-pans or dry cakes and often sold as a complete color palette or "watercolor set", will have the pigment or pigments index name on the label, or printed directly on the paint tube.

This color database is a also a great pigment reference made for DIY artist's and artisans that make their own paints with raw pigments and grind or mull the pigments into homemade paints giving them complete control over the paints grind, texture, and color. Making your own paints (paint making) by mulling the pigment in with a binding medium can be a rewarding and fun creative experience. The artist is involved in the process of creation, from the beginning with only the raw dry pigments and proceeding on to grinding pigments with a binding media (usually shortened to "binder"). For making oil paints, linseed oil is the most common binder (or medium). Walnut oil is also common oil used in making oil colors in the art studio and is less yellowing than linseed oil, There are other less common drying oils and some new alkyd resins the are sometimes used in making oil colors in the studio. Making (or grinding) watercolor paint is also fun and easy. The most common formula for making homemade watercolors is mostly water with some dissolved gum arabic (the glue that holds the paint together when dry). Honey and glycerin are common additives used in varying proportions to adjust the drying time and re-wetability of the dried watercolor. See the Art is Creation Recipe page for more info and paint making or grinding medium recipes. Egg-oil tempera and other media can be made in the art studio by DIY artists and it is creative and fun to make your very own paints. It is a very rewarded creative experience to grinding (mulling) your own paints and then finally making a painting or work of art, all entirely created by the artist themselves from start to finish.

The Art is Creation, Color of Art Pigment Database Reference has the resources and info on pigments used for artist paint, student paints, Oil color including:

  • Oil Paints
  • Watercolors
  • Acrylic Paint
  • Pigments used in making paint
  • Dry Pigments and Powders
  • Aqueous Pigment Dispersions
  • Fluid Acrylics
  • Airbrush Paint
  • Acrylic Gouache
  • Matte Acrylic Paints
  • Acrylic Vinyl
  • Acyclic paint or Alkyd Oils
  • Casein or Milk Paint
  • Encaustic painting
  • Gouache
  • Printing Inks or Pigmented Drawing inks
  • Oil sticks or Oil Bars
  • Oil Base Pigment Stick
  • Tempera or Egg Tempera
  • Watercolor Sticks
  • Watercolor Pigment Sticks or Bars
  • Water mixable oil paint or water soluble oil paint